EPPO Lists of Invasive Alien Plants


EPPO, in the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is developing a cooperative Europe-wide strategy to protect the EPPO region against invasive alien plants. In 2002 the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants was created and was given the task to identify invasive alien plant species which may present a risk to the EPPO region, and to propose management options.
The number of plants that can be considered as potential pest species is very large and the Panel has elaborated a prioritization process for all known, or potential invasive alien plants in the EPPO region. During this process the Panel is documenting invasive alien plant species on data sheets and when necessary, conducting Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) following the EPPO Decision-support scheme, 'Pest Risk Analysis for quarantine pests'. As a result of these studies, the following lists of invasive alien plants have been established.






EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests 

Invasive alien plants which have been added to the EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests are listed in the table below. The purpose of the EPPO A1/A2 Lists is to recommend that organisms of serious phytosanitary concern should be regulated as quarantine pests by EPPO member countries (A1 pests are absent from the EPPO region and A2 pests are locally present in the EPPO region). The listing of pests is based on technical justifications (i.e. PRAs) and follows a meticulous approval procedure. Plant species, before being submitted to a PRA, have been identified as posing a risk by the EPPO prioritization process.


Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database to retrieve PRA documents and datasheets)
EPPO A1/A2 Lists
Alternanthera philoxeroides
A2 in 2015
Amaranthus palmeri A2 in 2020
Amaranthus tuberculatus A2 in 2020
Ambrosia confertiflora [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Ambrosia trifida A2 in 2019
Andropogon virginicus [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Baccharis halimifolia
A2 in 2013
Cardiospermum grandiflorum [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Cortaderia jubata [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018
Crassula helmsii
A2 in 2006
Ehrharta calycina [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Eichhornia crassipes
A2 in 2008
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides  [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Hakea sericea [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Heracleum persicum
A2 in 2009
Heracleum sosnowskyi
A2 in 2009
Humulus scandens  [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
A2 in 2005
Lespedeza cuneata [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018
Ludwigia grandiflora
A2 in 2011
A2 in 2011
Lygodium japonicum [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018
Microstegium vimineum
A2 in 2015
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
A2 in 2015
Parthenium hysterophorus
A2 in 2014
Pistia stratiotes [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Polygonum perfoliatum
A2 in 2008
Prosopis juliflora [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A2 in 2018
Pueraria montana var. lobata
A2 in 2006
Salvinia molesta [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
A2 in 2017
Solanum elaeagnifolium
A2 in 2006
Triadica sebifera [evaluated under EU LIFE project] A1 in 2018


EPPO List of invasive alien plants

The plants listed below have been identified by the Panel as being absent or present in the EPPO region; as having a high potential for spread; as posing an important threat to plant health and/or the environment and biodiversity; and eventually as having other detrimental social impacts in the EPPO region. Because a large number of invasive alien plants are already present in the EPPO region, priorities were set in order to select those species considered to pose the greatest threat to species and ecosystems in the EPPO region. EPPO therefore strongly recommends countries endangered by these species to take measures to prevent their introduction and spread, or to manage unwanted populations (for example with publicity, restrictions on sale and planting, and control measures). This List is constantly being reviewed by the Panel (new species can be added and others removed). The list is not meant to be exhaustive but to focus on the main risks.




EPPO Observation List of invasive alien plants

The EPPO Observation List was created by the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants in 2012. This list contains plant species (absent or present in the EPPO region) which present a medium risk or for which information currently available is not sufficient to make an accurate assessment. It is stressed that inclusion in the Observation List is not definitive, and changes can be made when additional information is recorded, particularly when information on invasiveness becomes available, or when a significant change in the invasive behaviour is observed.


Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database to retrieve PRA documents and datasheets, if available)
Added in
Akebia quinata
Alternanthera sessilis 2020
Araujia sericifera
Asparagus asparagoides
Azolla filiculoides
Baccharis spicata 2019
Bidens frondosa
Broussonetia papyrifera 2019
Cenchrus incertus
Cenchrus longispinus 2018
Eragrostis curvula
Eriochloa villosa
Galenia pubescens 2018
Hygrophila polysperma [evaluated under EU LIFE project]
Impatiens edgeworthii 2018
Limnophila sessiliflora
Lupinus polyphyllus
Lysichiton americanus [A2 in 2005 - deleted in 2009]
Miscanthus sinensis 2018
Nassella trichotoma, N. neesiana and N. tenuissima
Rhododendron ponticum
Sesbania punicea
Solidago nemoralis
Verbesina encelioides


EPPO Alert List (extract)

Species included in the Alert List have been selected by the EPPO Secretariat or proposed by EPPO member countries, because they may present a risk to the EPPO region. Most species are still of limited distribution, or absent from the EPPO region. Each addition to the EPPO Alert List is also marked by a short article in the EPPO Reporting Service. The objective of the EPPO Alert List is to provide early warning and eventually to propose candidates which may be subjected to a PRA. Species recorded in the Alert List are assessed through the EPPO Prioritization process to determine whether they should fall into the List of Invasive Alien Plants, the Observation List, or a PRA should be conducted.


Invasive alien plants included in the EPPO Alert List – for pests other than invasive alien plants view the full Alert List  


Plant name
Added in Mini data sheets Link to EPPO Global Database
Euphorbia davidii 2021 Alert List Link
Lonicera acuminata 2019 Alert List Link
Lycium ferocissimum 2020 Alert List Link
Pseudosasa japonica 2020 Alert List Link
Solanum carolinense 2020 Alert List Link
Solanum sisymbriifolium 2020 Alert List Link
Trianthema portulacastrum 2020 Alert List Link