E´╗┐PPO’s involvement in the EU project DROPSA

Preparation of alert lists of pests likely to be introduced in the EU with table grapes, apples, oranges and mandarins, and Vaccinium berries

 

 

 

 

 

The EU project DROPSA ‘Strategies to develop effective, innovative and practical approaches to protect major European fruit crops from pests and pathogens’ (project number 613678) ran from 2014 to early 2018 and aimed to improve plant health strategies in the fruit sector. Within the DROPSA project, EPPO and JKI (Julius-Kühn-Institute, Germany) carried out task 1.3  ‘Alert list of pathways of introduction in Europe’ under Work Package 1 ‘Pathways of introduction of fruit pests and pathogens’. The main results obained by EPPO and JKI during this project (WP 1 – task 1.3) are presented below.

For more information on  DROPSA:   www.dropsaproject.eu
Further reading:  Steffen K, Grousset F, Petter F, Suffert M, Schrader G (2015) EU-project DROPSA: first achievements regarding pathway analyses for fruit pests. EPPO Bulletin 45(1), 148-152.

 

 

Review of pathways of introduction of fruit pests into Europe

In this project, an important initial step was to prepare a review of non-native pests of fruit species that have been introduced into Europe or were found in the fruit trade during the last 10–15 years. The review identifed 387 pest species and was then used to identify the main pathways that needed to be further studied.

Review from ‘Steffen K, Grousset F, Schrader G, Petter F, Suffert M (2015) Identification of pests and pathogens recorded in Europe with relation to fruit imports. EPPO Bulletin 45(2), 223-239.’
Supporting Excel file

 

 

Analysis of fruit production and imports in the EU to select fruit crops for pathway studies

A methodology was put into place to select fruit crops for pathway studies. In this prioritization process, the main factors used to select fruit crops were the following: trade volumes in the EU,  production areas in the EU, origins of traded fruit  (emerging markets), and history of pest introductions into Europe in relation to fruit imports (following the review from Steffen et al. 2015 – see above). Furthermore, the overall selection aimed to provide a good geographical coverage of fruit production within the EU, to ensure a good balance between fruit crops (i.e. both regulated and non-regulated fruit commodities in the EU), and to cover crops belonging to different groups (e.g. pome fruit, stone fruit, citrus, small fruit). As a result of this analysis, a list of priority fruit crops was established and the following four were further studied in the project: table grapes, apples, oranges and mandarins, and Vaccinium berries

Methodology used to select fruit crops in order to carry out pathway studies 

 

 

Preparation of pest alert lists for selected fruit crops

A methodology was put into place to prepare alert lists of pests for the four selected fruit crops (table grapes, apples, oranges and mandarins, and Vaccinium berries). This methology was based on the one developped for the EPPO Study on pest risks associated with the import of tomato fruit  but was adjusted to better take into account the particularities of the fruit crops studied and the experience gained during the Dropsa project and earlier pathway studies. In addition, this methodology was used to develop the EPPO Standard PM 5/9 Preparation of pest lists in the framework of commodity PRAs .

Methodology used to prepare pest alert lists

 

 

Specific reports for selected fruit crops and alert lists

For each of the four fruit crops studied a specific report has been prepared. These specific reports provide data on fruit production and trade, as well as explanations on the characteristics of the pathways studied. They also list the pests which have been identified as presenting some risks for the EU fruit production during the different steps of the prioritization process, and finally present an alert list of pests. The alert lists were finalized in December 2015 for Vaccinium berries, and in December 2016 for apples, oranges and mandarins, and table grapes. As a consequence, any new information that might have become available after these dates could not be included. For each fruit crop, specific reports are supplemented with Excel files where all pests that were considered for the alert lists are rated against a number of criteria (e.g. presence or absence in the EU territory, EU phytosanitary measures already in place, level of damage on the selected fruit crop, relationships with other host plants).

Table grapes – Fruit pathway analysis and alert list: Report and Excel table
Apples – Fruit pathway analysis and alert list: Report and Excel table
Oranges and mandarins – Fruit pathway analysis and alert list: Report and Excel table
Vaccinium berries – Fruit pathway analysis and alert list: Report and Excel table

 

Warning: for pests that were finally not retained in alert lists, Excel tables may contain redundant or incomplete data because searching for additional information and ratings stopped as soon as the data obtained was sufficient to justify exclusion of the pest from further consideration. For each pest that has been included in the alert lists, short datasheets have been prepared to summarize data on pathways, hosts, geographical distribution, and damage. All pest-specific datasheets can be retrieved in the EPPO Global Database (see summarizing table below and follow the links).

 

It was not possible to conduct a detailed analysis for fruit species outside the four selected groups. However, pests that are already included in one or more of the alert lists (and for which a datasheet had been prepared) but that have other fruit crops as hosts were kept in a separate list (list of other pests of interest). This additional list also includes pests that may be associated with one of the fruit groups considered but that are also a threat for other crops.

List of other pests of interest

 

 

Summary table: pests included in the alert lists with links to datasheets

Pest species are listed in alphabetical order. Species written in bold are related to three or four of the examined pathways. Click on the links to access the datasheets that are stored in the EPPO Global Database (in the ‘Documents’ section). This table can also be downloaded as a PDF file .

 

The colour of the cells indicates the rating attributed to each pest within the specific alert lists:

  • red = high economic importance and high likelihood of transfer
  • green = lower economic importance and high likelihood of transfer, or a high economic importance and lower likelihood of transfer
  • purple grey = possibly emerging pests (for Vaccinium berries only)

 

 

Pathways

Pest species

Taxonomy

Table grapes

Apples

Oranges and Mandarins

Vaccinium berries

Acalitus vaccinii

Acarida: Eriophyidae

       

Accuminulia buscki

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Acleris minuta

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Acrobasis vaccinii

Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

       

Adoxophyes cyrtosema

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Aegorhinus superciliosus

Coleoptera: Curculionidae

       

Aleurolobus taonabae

Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

       

Alternaria viticola

Ascomycota

       

Amyelois transitella

Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

       

Archips argyrospilus

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Archips breviplicanus

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Archips fuscocupreanus

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Archips micaceana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Archips pomivora

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Argyresthia assimilis

Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

       

Argyrotaenia citrana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Argyrotaenia pomililiana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Argyrotaenia sphaleropa

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Argyrotaenia velutinana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Aroga trialbamaculella

Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

       

Biprorulus bibax

Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

       

Bonagota cranaodes

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Brevipalpus chilensis

Acarida: Tenuipalpidae

       

Carpophilus davidsoni

Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

       

Choristoneura parallela

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Cingilia catenaria

Lepidoptera: Geometridae

       

Citripestis sagittiferella

Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

       

Clarkeulia bourquini

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Clarkeulia deceptiva

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Colletotrichum fructicola

Ascomycota

       

Coscinoptycha improbana

Lepidoptera: Carposinidae

       

Cotinis nitida

Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

       

Cryptothelea variegata

Lepidoptera: Psychidae

       

Ctenopseustis obliquana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Deudorix isocrates

Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

       

Diabrotica speciosa

Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

       

Diaporthe australafricana

Ascomycota

       

Diaprepes abbreviatus

Coleoptera: Curculionidae

       

Dichocrocis punctiferalis

Lepidoptera: Crambidae

       

Ecdytolopha aurantianum

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Egira curialis

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

       

Eotetranychus kankitus

Acarida: Tetranychidae

       

Eotetranychus sexmaculatus

Acarida: Tetranychidae

       

Epiglaea apiata

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

       

Erthesina fullo

Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

       

Euzophera pyriella

Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

       

Exobasidium maculosum

Basidiomycota

       

Frankliniella bispinosa

Thysanoptera: Thripidae

       

Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium

Ascomycota

       

Grapholita libertina

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Harrisina brillians

Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

       

Helminthosporium papulosum

Ascomycota

       

Hylamorpha elegans

Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

       

Hyphantus sulcifrons

Coleoptera: Curculionidae

       

Lacanobia subjuncta

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

       

Leptoglossus zonatus

Hemiptera: Coreidae

       

Lobiopa insularis

Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

       

Lygocoris communis

Hemiptera: Miridae

       

Lygus lineolaris

Hemiptera: Miridae

       

Marmara gulosa

Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae

       

Naupactus xanthographus

Coleoptera: Curculionidae

       

Neosilba zadolicha

Diptera: Lonchaeidae

       

Nipaecoccus viridis

Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

       

Nippoptilia vitis

Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae

       

Ochropleura implecta

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

       

Orthosia hibisci

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

       

Pandemis pyrusana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Paracoccus burnerae

Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

       

Paracoccus marginatus

Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

       

Paralobesia viteana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Phlyctinus callosus

Coleoptera: Curculionidae

       

Physalospora baccae

Ascomycota

       

Plagiognathus repetitus

Hemiptera: Miridae

       

Platynota flavedana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Platynota idaeusalis

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Platynota stultana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Platyptilia ignifera

Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae

       

Praelongorthezia praelonga

Hemiptera: Ortheziidae

       

Prays endocarpa

Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

       

Prays endolemma

Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

       

Proeulia auraria

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Proeulia chrysopteris

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Proeulia triquetra

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Pseudococcus maritimus

Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

       

Resseliella citrifrugis

Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

       

Retithrips syriacus

Thysanoptera: Thripidae

       

Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus

Thysanoptera: Thripidae

       

Rhynchites heros

Coleoptera: Attelabidae

       

Sparganothis sulfureana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens

Ascomycota

       

Spilonota albicana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Spilonota prognathana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Systena frontalis

Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

       

Teia anartoides

Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae

       

Thaumatotibia leucotreta

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Thekopsora minima

Basidiomycota

       

Thrips imaginis

Thysanoptera: Thripidae

       

Thrips obscuratus

Thysanoptera: Thripidae

       

Tolype innocens

Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae

       

Tortrix excessana

Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

       

Tuckerella knorri

Acarida: Tuckerellidae

       

Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae

       

Xylena nupera

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

       

Zaprionus indianus

Diptera: Drosophilidae