EPPO activities on Pest Risk Analysis
In order to prevent the entry and spread of damaging pests, it is important to identify potential risks at an early stage and propose technically justified phytosanitary measures to mitigate these risks. In order to formalize this process, the concept of Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) has been developed and used, both at global and regional level. The aim of PRA is to decide whether pests should be regulated or not as quarantine pest and propose risk management options. Since the 1990s, EPPO has been developing Standards on how to perform PRA. These Standards remain in line with what has also been developed within the IPPC framework, in particular with ISPM 11 – Pest Risk Analysis.
Pest Risk Analysis: Process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it (ISPM 5, FAO).
For more information on PRA, read the EPPO Technical Document; Review of EPPO’s approach to Pest Risk Analysis (no. 1079, 2019)
How PRAs are conducted within EPPO
The general methodology for conducting PRAs has been elaborated by the EPPO Panel on PRA development. Since 2006, EPPO organizes meetings of Experts Working Groups (EWGs) which are conducting PRAs on specific pests or groups of pests. The conclusions resulting from these PRAs are addressed to the EPPO member countries only, as the area potentially at risk that is considered during these PRAs is the EPPO region (not the other parts of the world).
EWG on Oemona hirta (Paris, 2012-05-29/06-01)
EWG on Aromia bungii (Napoli, IT, 2013-11-11/15)
EPPO Standards on PRA and CAPRA
The following EPPO Standards on PRA have been agreed and published. All can be retrieved from this website in our section on Standards. Files are also stored in the EPPO Global Database
- PM 5/1(1) Check-list of information required for PRA
- PM 5/2(2) PRA on detection of a pest in an imported consignment
- PM 5/3(5) Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests (version 2011)
- PM 5/5(1) Decision-Support Scheme for an Express Pest Risk Analysis
- PM5/6(1) EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants
- PM5/7(1) Screening process to identify priorities for commodity PRA for plants for planting
- PM5/8(1) Guidelines on the phytosanitary measure ‘Plants grown under complete physical isolation’
- PM 5/9(1) Preparation of pest lists in the framework of commodity PRAs
CAPRA (Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis) is a computer software which has been developed by the EPPO Secretariat in the framework of the European Union 7th framework program project PRATIQUE (Grant agreement No 212 459) and with the support of the EPPO Panels. This software aims to assist pest risk analysts in running the EPPO decision-support schemes for Pest Risk Analysis (Standards PM 5/3, PM 5/5 and PM 5/6).
EPPO Platform on PRAs – NEW
In 2018, the EPPO Secretariat launched a new Platform on PRAs. It contains:
- EPPO PRAs
- EFSA PRAs
- National PRAs prepared by EPPO member countries
- PRAs produced in the framework of EU-funded projects
- A selection of interesting PRAs from other parts of the world
- Scientific articles related to PRA activities
The EPPO Platform on PRAs contains more than 400 PRAs produced since the early 1990s to the present date, as well as some additional documents related to PRA activities. In a restricted part of the Platform, registered users can also share draft PRAs, or their future plans to conduct PRAs in order to facilitate collaboration and share the workload.
PRAs prepared by dedicated EPPO Expert Working Groups
All PRAs that have been prepared with EPPO Expert Working Groups since 2006 are listed below. To access PRA documents and datasheets (stored in EPPO Global Database) click on the links.
|Pomacea canaliculata||A1 - 2018|
|Pomacea maculata||A2 - 2018|
|Bursaphelenchus xylophilus||A1 - transferred to A2 in 2010|
|Meloidogyne enterolobii||A2 - 2010|
|Meloidogyne mali||A2 - 2017|
|Fungi (and fungus-like)|
|Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis||A2 - 2015|
|Heterobasidion irregulare||A2 - 2015|
|Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum||A2 in 2013|
|Phytophthora lateralis||A1 - transferred to A2 in 2011|
|Thekopsora minima||A2 - 2017|
|Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium||A1 - 2017|
|Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum||A1 - 2012|
|Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae||A2 - 2012|
|Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii||A1 - 2009|
|Citrus bark craking viroid||A2 - 2017|
|Rose rosette emaravirus and its vector Phyllocoptes fructiphilus||A1 - 2018|
PRAs under development or planned in the near future
The following pests or groups of pest are currently under study by Expert Working Groups (EWGs) or are planned to be studied in the short term.
|Type of pest||Name||Comments|
|Insects||Agrilus fleisheri||EWG met in 2018-12-03/07|
|Insects and associated fungi||Bark and ambrosia beetle in non coniferous wood||EWG met in 2018-03-13/16 and 2018-06-14/15 (draft study under review)|
Special projects and EPPO studies
EPPO has carried out several studies on the risks associated with different commodities. These have been published as EPPO Technical Documents.
- EPPO Study on the risk of bark and ambrosia beetles associated with imported non-coniferous wood (no. 1081, 2020)
- EPPO Secretariat’s approach for commodity studies (no. 1074, 2016)
- EPPO Study on wood commodities other than round wood, sawn wood and manufactured items (no. 1071, 2015)
- EPPO Study on pest risks associated with the import of tomato fruit (no. 1068, 2015)
- EPPO Study on the risk of imports of plants for planting (no. 1061, 2012)
EPPO has participated in several EU-funded projects related to PRA (e.g. PRATIQUE, DROPSA, LIFE IAP project).
Conferences and Workshops on PRA
EPPO has organized a series of workshops and conferences on PRAs. The most recent ones are listed below.
- Workshop on regulated pests: risk analysis and listing (Moscow, 2018-06-06/08)
- Joint EFSA-EPPO Workshop: Modelling in Plant Health – how can models support risk assessment of plant pests and decision making? (Parma, IT, 2016-12-12/14)
- FAO/EPPO Workshop on 'Commodity-associated phytosanitary risk, its analysis and management' (Bishkek, KG, 2014-06-03/06)
- EPPO Training course on the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants (Belgrade, 2013-07-09/11)
- EPPO Training course on the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants (Paris, 2013-03-12/14)
- PRATIQUE / EPPO Workshop on Pest Risk Analysis (Hammamet, TN, 2010-11-23/26)
- Atelier de formation de base sur l’Analyse du Risque Phytosanitaire (Hammamet, Tunisie, 2010-02-09/12)
Articles published in the EPPO Bulletin
- Baker RHA (2012) An introduction to the PRATIQUE Research Project. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 42(1), 1-2.
- Griessinger D, Suffert M, Brunel S, Petter F (2012) CAPRA: the EPPO Computer Assisted PRA scheme. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 42(1), 42-47.
- ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety)
- International Pest Risk Research Group (IPRRG)
- IPPC (ISPMs on PRA)
- Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI) – Risikoanalysen
- Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority – Pest Risk Analysis
- Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment – Risk assessments
- Polish Research Centre of Quarantine, Invasive and Genetically Modified Organisms
- Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
- UK Plant Health Information Portal – Pest risk analyses