EPPO activities on Pest Risk Analysis

 

 

In order to prevent the entry and spread of damaging pests, it is important to identify potential risks at an early stage and propose technically justified phytosanitary measures to mitigate these risks. In order to formalize this process, the concept of Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) has been developed and used, both at global and regional level. The aim of PRA is to decide whether pests should be regulated or not as quarantine pest and propose risk management options. Since the 1990s, EPPO has been developing Standards on how to perform PRA. These Standards remain in line with what has also been developed within the IPPC framework, in particular with  ISPM 11 – Pest Risk Analysis. 

Pest Risk Analysis: Process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it (ISPM 5, FAO).

 

 

How PRAs are conducted within EPPO

The general methodology for conducting PRAs has been elaborated by the EPPO Panel on PRA development. Since 2006, EPPO organizes meetings of Experts Working Groups (EWGs) which are conducting PRAs on specific pests or groups of pests. The conclusions resulting from these PRAs are addressed to the EPPO member countries only, as the area potentially at risk that is considered during these PRAs is the EPPO region (not the other parts of the world). 

 

EWG on Oemona hirta (Paris, 2012-05-29/06-01)

EWG on Aromia bungii  (Napoli, IT, 2013-11-11/15)

 

 

EPPO Standards on PRA and CAPRA

The following EPPO Standards on PRA have been agreed and published. All can be retrieved from this website in our section on Standards. Files are also stored in the EPPO Global Database 

  • PM 5/1(1) Check-list of information required for PRA
  • PM 5/2(2) PRA on detection of a pest in an imported consignment
  • PM 5/3(5) Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests (version 2011) 
  • PM 5/5(1) Decision-Support Scheme for an Express Pest Risk Analysis 
  • PM5/6(1) EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants
  • PM5/7(1) Screening process to identify priorities for commodity PRA for plants for planting
  • PM5/8(1) Guidelines on the phytosanitary measure ‘Plants grown under complete physical isolation’
  • PM 5/9(1) Preparation of pest lists in the framework of commodity PRAs

 

 

CAPRA (Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis) is a computer software which has been developed by the EPPO Secretariat in the framework of the European Union 7th framework program project PRATIQUE (Grant agreement No 212 459) and with the support of the EPPO Panels. This software aims to assist pest risk analysts in running the EPPO decision-support schemes for Pest Risk Analysis (Standards PM 5/3, PM 5/5 and PM 5/6).

 

access CAPRA and download the software  |  read the User Manual 

 

 

 

 

PRAs prepared by dedicated EPPO Expert Working Groups

All PRAs that have been prepared with EPPO Expert Working Groups since 2006 are listed below. To access PRA documents and datasheets (stored in EPPO Global Database) click on the links.

 

Pests (links to pest-specific documents in EPPO Global Database)
Final decision
Insects and mites  
Agrilus anxius A1 - 2011
Agrilus planipennis A1 - 2004
Aleurothrixus trachoides – New Not added
Apriona germari, A. rugicollis (A. japonica), A. cinerea A1 - 2013
Aromia bungii A1 - 2014
Aulacaspis yasumatsui Not added
Bactericera cockerelli A1 - 2012
Bactrocera invadens A1 - 2010
Bactrocera latifrons – New A1 - 2017
Ceratothripoides brunneus – New A1 - 2017
Ceratothripoides claratris – New A1 - 2017
Diocalandra frumenti Not added
Drosophila suzukii A2 - 2011
Epitrix cucumeris, E. subcrinita, E. tuberis, E. papa A1/A2 - 2010
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato and it associated fungi – New A2 - 2016
Keiferia lycopersicella A1 - 2012
Lycorma delicatula A1 - 2016
Megaplatypus mutatus A2 - 2007
Metamasius hemipterus A1 - 2009
Neoleucinodes elegantalis A1 - 2014
Oemona hirta A1 - 2013
Platynota stultana – New A2 - 2017
Polygraphus proximus A2 - 2014
Prodiplosis longifila – New A1 - 2017
Raoiella indica Not added
Saperda candida A1 - 2010
Tetranychus evansi A2 - 2008
Thaumatotibia leucotreta

A2 - 2013

 

Nematodes  
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus A1 - transferred to A2 in 2010
Meloidogyne enterolobii A2 - 2010
Meloidogyne mali – New A2 - 2017

 

Fungi (and fungus-like)  
Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis A2 - 2015
Heterobasidion irregulare A2 - 2015
Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum A2 in 2013
Phytophthora lateralis A1 - transferred to A2 in 2011
Thekopsora minima – New A2 - 2017

 

Bacterium  
Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium – New A1 - 2017
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum A1 - 2012
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae A2 - 2012
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii A1 - 2009

 

Viruses  
Citrus bark craking viroid – New A2 - 2017
Not added

 

Invasive plants  
Alternanthera philoxeroides A2 - 2015
Ambrosia confertiflora List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Arctotheca calendula List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2014
Baccharis halimifolia A2 - 2013
Cabomba caroliniana List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2006
Cardiospermum grandiflorum – New A2 - 2017
Cinnamomum camphora – New Not added
Crassula helmsii A2 - 2006
Eichhornia crassipes A2 - 2008
Gunnera tinctoria List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2014
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides – New A2 - 2017
Heracleum mantegazzianum List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Heracleum sosnowskyi A2 - 2009
Heracleum persicum A2 - 2009
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides A2 - 2005
Hygrophila polysperma – New Not added
Ludwigia grandiflora A2 - 2011
Ludwigia peploides A2 - 2011
Lysichiton americanus A2 - 2005 but deleted in 2009
Microstegium vimineum A2 - 2015
Myriophyllum heterophyllum A2 - 2015
Parthenium hysterophorus A2 - 2014
Pistia stratiotes – New A2 - 2017
Polygonum perfoliatum A2 - 2008
Pueraria montana var. lobata A2 - 2006
Salvinia molesta – New A2 - 2017
Senecio inaequidens List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Solanum elaeagnifolium A2 - 2006
Sicyos angulatus List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2005

 

 

PRAs under development or planned in the near future

The following pests or groups of pest are currently under study by Expert Working Groups (EWGs) or are planned to be studied in the short term.

 

Type of pest Name Comments
Insects Massicus radei EWG met in 2017-12-05/08 (draft PRA under review)
Insects Agrilus fleisheri EWG planned in 2018-12
Insects and associated fungi Bark and ambrosia beetle in non coniferous wood EWG met in 2018-03-13/16 and 2018-06-14/15 (draft study under review)
Viruses Rose rosette virus EWG met on 2017-09 (draft PRA under review)

 

 

EPPO Platform on PRAs (under development)

In 2015, the EPPO Secretariat conducted a survey in order to better understand how PRA was being performed within the EPPO region and obtain feed-back on EPPO’s activities in PRA. One of the conclusions of the survey was that many PRAs were produced at the national level and that sharing them among EPPO countries would be most useful. The EPPO Platform on PRAs is currently under development and should be released in 2018/2019. It will provide access to finalized and draft PRAs produced in the EPPO region by National Plant Protection Organizations and related agencies.

 

 

 

Special projects and EPPO studies

EPPO has carried out several studies on the risks associated with different commodities. These have been published as EPPO Technical Documents.

 

EPPO has participated in several EU-funded projects related to PRA (e.g. PRATIQUE, DROPSA, LIFE IAP project).

View our section on special projects

 

 

 

Conferences and Workshops on PRA

EPPO has organized a series of workshops and conferences on PRAs. The most recent ones are listed below.

  • Workshop on regulated pests: risk analysis and listing (Moscow, 2018-06-06/08)
  • Joint EFSA-EPPO Workshop: Modelling in Plant Health – how can models support risk assessment of plant pests and decision making? (Parma, IT, 2016-12-12/14)
  • FAO/EPPO Workshop on 'Commodity-associated phytosanitary risk, its analysis and management' (Bishkek, KG, 2014-06-03/06)
  • EPPO Training course on the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants (Belgrade, 2013-07-09/11)
  • EPPO Training course on the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants (Paris, 2013-03-12/14)
  • PRATIQUE / EPPO Workshop on Pest Risk Analysis (Hammamet, TN, 2010-11-23/26)
  • Atelier de formation de base sur l’Analyse du Risque Phytosanitaire (Hammamet, Tunisie, 2010-02-09/12)

Summaries of the recent conferences and workshops can be viewed on this website

 

 

Useful references

Articles published in the EPPO Bulletin

 

Websites