EPPO activities on Pest Risk Analysis



Pest Risk Analysis (PRA)

Pest Risk Analysis: The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether an organism is a pest, whether it should be regulated, and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it (ISPM 5, FAO).


In order to prevent the entry and spread of damaging pests, it is important to identify potential risks at an early stage and propose technically justified phytosanitary measures to mitigate these risks. In order to formalize this process, the concept of PRA has been developed and used, both at global and regional level. The aim of PRAs is to decide whether pests should be regulated or not as quarantine pest and propose risk management options. Since the 1990s, EPPO has been developing Standards on how to perform PRAs. These Standards remain in line with what has also been developed within the IPPC framework, in particular with  ISPM 11 – Pest Risk Analysis. 


For more information on PRA, read the EPPO Technical Document;  Review of EPPO’s approach to Pest Risk Analysis (no. 1079, 2019)




How PRAs are conducted within EPPO

A Panel on Phytosanitary Regulations was established in 1973. It was renamed Panel on Phytosanitary Measures in 2002. Its aim is at advising on addition or deletions of pests to the EPPO Alert List, recommend pests for regulation and their management options, based on review of PRAs. The Panel meets twice a year. Its current composition and summaries of its meeting discussions can be viewed on this website.


Panel on Phytosanitary Measures, Budapest (HU) 2023-10-3/5



The general methodology for conducting PRAs has been elaborated by the EPPO Panel on PRA development. Since 2006, EPPO organizes meetings of Experts Working Groups (EWGs) which are conducting PRAs on specific pests or groups of pests. PRAs are reviewed by the relevant Panels (Panel on Phytosanitary Measures and Panel on Invasive Alien Plants) and endorsed by the Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations. EPPO conducts PRAs and makes recommendations for the EPPO region.


EWG on Chloridea virescens (Paris, FR, 2023-11-13/16)

EWG on Agrilus mali (Paris, FR, 2023-05-30 to 06-02)



EPPO Standards on PRA

The following EPPO Standards on PRA have been agreed and published. All can be retrieved from this website in our section on Standards. Files are also stored in the EPPO Global Database 

  • PM 5/1(1) Check-list of information required for PRA
  • PM 5/2(2) PRA on detection of a pest in an imported consignment
  • PM 5/3(5) Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests (version 2011)
  • PM 5/5(1) Decision-Support Scheme for an Express Pest Risk Analysis (and guidance document)
  • PM5/6(1) EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants
  • PM5/7(1) Screening process to identify priorities for commodity PRA for plants for planting
  • PM5/8(1) Guidelines on the phytosanitary measure ‘Plants grown under physical isolation’
  • PM 5/9(1) Preparation of pest lists in the framework of commodity PRAs
  • PM 5/10(1) Guidelines on the design and implementation of a buffer zone




EPPO Platform on PRAs

The EPPO Platform on PRAs contains:

  • National PRAs prepared by EPPO member countries
  • PRAs produced in the framework of EU-funded projects
  • A selection of interesting PRAs from other parts of the world
  • Scientific articles related to PRA activities





The EPPO Platform on PRAs contains a large number of PRAs produced since the early 1990s to the present date, as well as some additional documents related to PRA activities. In a restricted part of the Platform, registered users can also share draft PRAs, or their future plans to conduct PRAs in order to facilitate collaboration and share the workload. 


more information | access platform



PRAs prepared by dedicated EPPO Expert Working Groups

All PRAs that have been prepared with EPPO Expert Working Groups since 2006 are listed below. To access PRA documents and datasheets (stored in EPPO Global Database) click on the links.


Pests (links to pest-specific documents in EPPO Global Database)
Final decision
Insects and mites  
Agrilus anxius A1 - 2011
Agrilus bilineatus A2 - 2019
Agrilus fleischeri  A2 - 2019
Agrilus planipennis A1 - 2004
Aleurothrixus trachoides Not added
Apriona germari, A. rugicollis (A. japonica), A. cinerea A1 - 2013
Aromia bungii A1 - 2014
Aulacaspis yasumatsui Not added
Bactericera cockerelli A1 - 2012
Bactrocera invadens A1 - 2010
Bactrocera latifrons A1 - 2017
Ceratothripoides brunneus A1 - 2017
Ceratothripoides claratris A1 - 2017
Chionaspis pinifoliae  A1 – 2022
Chrysobothris femorata  A1 – 2021
Chrysobothris mali  A1 – 2021
Dendroctonus valens  A1 – 2022
Diocalandra frumenti Not added
Drosophila suzukii A2 - 2011
Epitrix cucumeris, E. subcrinita, E. tuberis, E. papa A1/A2 - 2010
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato and it associated fungi A2 - 2016
Keiferia lycopersicella A1 - 2012
Gymnandrosoma aurantianum A1 – 2020
Lycorma delicatula A1 - 2016
Massicus raddei  A1 - 2018
Megaplatypus mutatus A2 - 2007
Metamasius hemipterus A1 - 2009
Naupactus xanthographus  A1 – 2020
Neoleucinodes elegantalis A1 - 2014
Oemona hirta A1 - 2013
Orgyia leucostigma  A1 – 2021
Platynota stultana A2 - 2017
Polygraphus proximus A2 - 2014
Prodiplosis longifila A1 - 2017
Raoiella indica Not added
Saperda candida A1 - 2010
Phyllocoptes fructiphilus  vector of  Rose rosette emaravirus  A1 - 2018
Tetranychus evansi A2 - 2008
Tetranychus mexicanus  – New A1 - 2023
Thaumatotibia leucotreta

A2 - 2013

Pomacea canaliculata  A1 - 2018
Pomacea maculata A2 - 2018


Bursaphelenchus xylophilus A1 - transferred to A2 in 2010
Meloidogyne enterolobii A2 - 2010
Meloidogyne mali A2 - 2017


Fungi (and fungus-like)  
Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis A2 - 2015
Heterobasidion irregulare A2 - 2015
Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum A2 in 2013
Phytophthora lateralis A1 - transferred to A2 in 2011
Thekopsora minima A2 - 2017


Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium A1 - 2017
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum A1 - 2012
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae A2 - 2012
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii A1 - 2009


Citrus bark cracking viroid  A2 - 2017
Grapevine red blotch virus  A1 – 2022
Not added
Rose rosette emaravirus and its vector Phyllocoptes fructiphilus  A1 - 2018
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus  A2 – 2020
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus  A2 – 2022
Tomato mottle mosaic virus  Not added


Invasive plants  

Ageratina adenophora – New

A2 - 2023
Alternanthera philoxeroides A2 - 2015
Amaranthus palmeri  A2 – 2020
Amaranthus tuberculatus  A2 – 2020
Ambrosia confertiflora A2 - 2018
Ambrosia trifida  A2 – 2019
Andropogon virginicus A2 - 2018
Baccharis halimifolia A2 - 2013
Cabomba caroliniana List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2006
Cardiospermum grandiflorum A2 - 2017
Celastrus orbiculatus  A2 – 2021
Cinnamomum camphora Not added
Cortaderia jubata  A1 – 2018
Crassula helmsii A2 - 2006
Ehrharta calycina  A2 - 2018
Eichhornia crassipes A2 - 2008
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides  A2 - 2017
Hakea sericea  A2 - 2018
Heracleum mantegazzianum List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Heracleum sosnowskyi A2 - 2009
Heracleum persicum A2 - 2009
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides A2 - 2005
Hygrophila polysperma Not added
Humulus scandens  A2 - 2018
Lespedeza cuneata  A1 - 2018
Lygodium japonicum  A1 - 2018
Ludwigia grandiflora A2 - 2011
Ludwigia peploides A2 - 2011
Lysichiton americanus A2 - 2005 but deleted in 2009
Microstegium vimineum A2 - 2015
Myriophyllum heterophyllum A2 - 2015
Parthenium hysterophorus A2 - 2014
Pistia stratiotes  A2 - 2017
Polygonum perfoliatum A2 - 2008
Prosopis juliflora  A2 - 2018
Pueraria montana var. lobata A2 - 2006
Salvinia molesta  A2 - 2017
Senecio inaequidens List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Solanum carolinense  A2 – 2022
Solanum elaeagnifolium A2 - 2006
Solanum viarum  Observation List – 2022
Sicyos angulatus List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2005
Triadica sebifera   A1 - 2018



PRAs under development or planned in the near future

PRAs being prepared by Expert Working Groups (EWGs) or under review within EPPO are listed in the EPPO Platform on PRAs 




Special projects and EPPO studies

EPPO has carried out several studies on the risks associated with different commodities. These have been published as EPPO Technical Documents.


EPPO has participated in several EU-funded projects related to PRA (e.g. PRATIQUE, DROPSA, LIFE IAP project).

View our section on special projects




Conferences and Workshops on PRA

EPPO has organized a series of workshops and conferences on PRAs. The most recent ones are listed below.

  • EPPO Training course on PRA for invasive alien plants (Belgrade, 2018-11-29/30)

  • Workshop on regulated pests: risk analysis and listing (Moscow, 2018-06-06/08)
  • EPPO Training workshop 2: EPPO Express PRA for invasive alien plant species compliant with the Regulation (EU) No. 1143/2014 (Paris, 2017-02-14/17)

  • Joint EFSA-EPPO Workshop: Modelling in Plant Health – how can models support risk assessment of plant pests and decision making? (Parma, IT, 2016-12-12/14)
  • EPPO Training workshop 1: EPPO Prioritization Process for invasive alien plant species compliant with EU Regulation No 1143/2014 (Paris 2016-12-14/17)

  • FAO/EPPO Workshop on 'Commodity-associated phytosanitary risk, its analysis and management' (Bishkek, KG, 2014-06-03/06)
  • EPPO Training course on the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants (Belgrade, 2013-07-09/11)
  • EPPO Training course on the EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants (Paris, 2013-03-12/14)
  • PRATIQUE / EPPO Workshop on Pest Risk Analysis (Hammamet, TN, 2010-11-23/26)
  • Atelier de formation de base sur l’Analyse du Risque Phytosanitaire (Hammamet, Tunisie, 2010-02-09/12)

Summaries of the recent conferences and workshops can be viewed on this website



Useful references

Articles published in the EPPO Bulletin