EPPO activities on Invasive Alien Plants
EPPO protects plants in agriculture, forestry and the uncultivated environment. For over 60 years, EPPO has sought to prevent the introduction and spread of organisms which are harmful to plants in the European and Mediterranean region. Traditionally, EPPO has given priority to pests of cultivated plants (e.g. insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, viruses), but more recently as new emphasis was given to the protection of biodiversity, it was acknowledged that plant protection also applied to plants in the uncultivated environment. Wild plants can be threatened by the introduction and spread of pests, and notably by 'invasive alien plants' which can seriously disturb and destroy natural plant communities.
Therefore in the early 2000s, EPPO started to work more specifically on invasive alien plants and a specific Panel on Invasive Alien Plants was created in 2002. The aim of this work was to analyze the risks presented by specific invasive alien plant species for the EPPO region and recommend measures to prevent their introduction and spread via international trade. As a result, Lists of Invasive Alien Plants have been established on the basis of transparent criteria and harmonized methodologies (Prioritization Process and Pest Risk Analysis). These lists are constantly being updated to address the emergence of new risks. Finally, recommendations and Standards are being developed to help EPPO member countries to manage unwanted populations of these invasive alien plants on their territory.
EPPO Lists of Invasive Alien Plants
One of the main output of EPPO’s work is the establishment of lists of invasive alien plants that may present a risk for the EPPO region. To establish these lists, specific prioritization processes and internationally agreed procedures to assess and mitigate the risks (Pest Risk Analysis) are followed.
EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants
Since 2002, the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants has been established:
- To provide information on invasive alien plants for the EPPO region,
- To conduct studies on risk analysis of specific invasive alien plants,
- To recommend measures to prevent their introduction and spread,
- To recommend measures to eradicate, suppress and contain invasive alien plants already introduced.
Prioritization Process and Pest Risk Analysis
The number of plants that can be considered as potentially invasive and damaging for the EPPO region is huge and there is a need to determine priorities. The Panel agreed that EPPO’s recommendations should be focused on species which are not widely distributed or absent from the region and for which efficient prevention, eradication or containment action can be undertaken. Consequently, the Organization has elaborated a prioritization process for all known or potentially invasive alien plants in the EPPO region which was adopted as an EPPO Standard in 2012.
Once priorities have been established, the potential risk presented by specific plant species or pathways (e.g. imports of aquatic plants) can be studied by conducted a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA). Within EPPO, Expert Working Groups (EWGs) have been established to perform PRAs on specific plant species and the Panel on Invasive Alien Plants has been given the task of reviewing these PRAs.
Finally, in the framework of an EU-funded project (LIFE project IAP-RISK), the EPPO prioritization process was also used and adapted to determine which invasive plant species had the highest priority for risk assessment at the EU level with the final aim of being eventually proposed for inclusion in the list of invasive alien species of EU concern.
EPPO Standards and other recommendations
EPPO Standards on Invasive Alien Plants
The following EPPO Standards have been developped specifically to address the issue of invasive alien plants. Once officially approved by the EPPO Council, Standards are published in the the EPPO Bulletin and also stored in the EPPO Global Database.
|PM 3/67(1)||Guidelines for the management of invasive alien plants or potentially invasive alien plants which are intended for import or have been intentionally imported|
|PM 3/74(1)||Guidelines on the development of a Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants|
|PM 5/6(1)||EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants|
|PM 9/7(1)||Ambrosia artemisiifolia|
|PM 9/8(1)||Eichhornia crassipes|
|PM 9/9(1)||Heracleum mantegazzianum, H. sosnowskyi and H. persicum|
|PM 9/12(1)||Sicyos angulatus|
|PM 9/19(1)||Invasive alien aquatic plants|
|PM 9/20(1)||Parthenium hysterophorus|
|PM 9/23(1)||Baccharis halimifolia|
|PM 9/24(1)||Microstegium vimineum|
Council declaration about plants for renewable energy and invasive alien plants
As several species included in the EPPO List of Invasive Alien Plants are sometimes planted as bioenergy crops, the EPPO Council made a special declaration in 2007 to warn its member countries about this potential risk.
EPPO / Council of Europe Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants
It is estimated that 80% of the invasive alien plants which are present in Europe have been voluntarily introduced for ornamental purposes, and international trade is increasing yearly. This major pathway must be addressed urgently to prevent entry and spread of invasive alien plants, as at present, few legislation and management programmes are in place. Voluntary measures to tackle the problem and raise awareness among the horticultural sector and the general public are therefore considered to be a priority. In 2008, EPPO and the Council of Europe (CoE) jointly drafted and published a Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants. In 2011, a new illustrated version of the EPPO/Council of Europe Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants was released in English and French (also available from the Council of Europe website). This Code of conduct provides essential information for Governments, as well as the horticultural and landscape sectors, on existing regulations concerning invasive alien plants, and it provides guidelines on plant waste disposal, labelling of plants, planting of alternative plant species, and publicity.
Code of conduct on horticulture and invasive alien plants (English version)
Code de conduite sur l'horticulture et les plantes exotiques envahissantes (version française)
Translations in other languages
- In Spanish, translated by the Ministry of Environment, Marine and Rural Affairs (pdf)
- In Italian, by the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea (pdf)
As for other pests, an important mission of EPPO is to promote information exchange on invasive alien plants, via its publications, databases and international conferences.
EPPO Reporting Service: since 2006, this free monthly newsletter prepared by the EPPO Secretariat includes a specific section on invasive alien plants.
The EPPO Global Database is a free database which contains for many invasive alien plants , geographical distributions, datasheets, PRAs and pictures.
EPPO Bulletin: many scientific articles on invasive alien plants have already been published in the EPPO Bulletin, more are welcome and can be submitted for publication.
Workshops and Conferences: EPPO regularly organizes workshops and conferences to raise awareness and exchange information on invasive alien plants, either on specific plant species or more general issues.
The EPPO Secretariat is looking for pictures of invasive alien plants, if you wish to contribute, picture files (jpg) can easily be uploaded onto the EPPO Global Database (see our PDF guide).
Useful publications on Invasive Alien Plants
- Tanner et al., (2017) The prioritization of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU) No. 1143/2014. NeoBiota 35, 87-118.
- Branquart et al., (2016) A prioritization process for invasive alien plant species incorporating the requirements of the EU Regulation no. 1143/2014. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 46, 603-617.
- Brunel et al., (2010) The EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 40, 407-422.
- Brunel S (2009) Pathway analysis: aquatic plants imported in 10 EPPO countries. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 39, 201–213.
- EPPO (2012) EPPO Standards - Guidelines for pest risk analysis. PM5/6(1) EPPO prioritization process for invasive alien plants. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 42, 463-474.
Contacts and partnerships
Mutual exchange of information and partnerships on activities related to invasive alien plants are being built with:
- the expert group on Invasive Alien Species of the Bern Convention of the Council of Europe
- the European Environment Agency
- the International Association of Horticultural Producers
- the Invasive Species Specialist Group
- the DAISIE and ALARM projects