EPPO Council Technical Colloquium
- Plant protection in the forestry sector -
After the administrative session of the EPPO Council, a Colloquium was organized to discuss the following theme: Plant protection in the forestry sector. More than 40 participants from 21 EPPO member countries, as well as from EEC and NAPPO, attended. The Colloquium was followed by a technical visit to a tree seed processing facility and to research fields on Heterobasidion annosum in eastern Latvia. Warm thanks are due to Ms Kjago, Mr Arnitis and their colleagues for the excellent organization of the Council session and Colloquium.
IPSN: an International Plant Sentinel Network (Ms Barham, Coordinator of IPSN, GB)
Ms Barham presented the activities of the International Plant Sentinel Network, a Euphresco Project launched in April 2013. The network was designed to enhance activities that provide early warning of new and emerging plant pests and diseases (monitoring plant species in botanical gardens to provide early detection of outbreaks, or identifying potential threats for species native to Europe but planted in botanical gardens in other parts of the world). The main target partners in the project are botanical gardens and arboreta and 25 botanical gardens are currently engaged in the network. One objective of the project is to enhance plant health capacity in botanical gardens through sharing of best practice amongst gardens but also to encourage exchange of information with NPPOs. Training material to increase capability among gardens are being developed (including standardised methodologies for monitoring and surveying plant pests and pathogens). Databases are being developed in order to share and store information, as well as to communicate scientific evidence to NPPOs.
Forest protection against harmful insects in Latvia in the context of climate change (Mr Smits, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, LV)
Mr Smits, presented the results of recent surveys performed in Latvia for different forest pests with a focus on Ips typographus, Lymantria dispar, L. monacha and Acantholida posticalis. The surveillance programme is based on:
- An evaluation of overwintering insect stages in the litter
- The use of pheromone traps
- An assessment of Ips typographus damage to the forest stands
- A forest health monitoring programme (FutMon) for the identification of defoliation agents
- Survey of suspicious stands based on signals from forest owners, the public or governmental institutions
Recent Research on Quarantine Forest Pests in Russia (Mr Kulinich, All-Russian Plant Quarantine Centre, RU)
Mr Kulinich presented an overview of the situation regarding pests recently introduced into Russia and explained that 20 forest pests were introduced into Russia in the last 15 years. The most recent introductions are:
- Agrilus planipennis has now spread and is present near the borders with Belarus and Ukraine.
- Aproceros leucopoda which has caused extensive defoliation of forest shelter belts along highways and railroads.
- Cydalima perspectalis recently introduced in the Sochi region where the pest is threatening the native forest of Buxus colchica.
- Metcalfa pruinosa, first recorded in the Krasnodar area is currently spreading and causing damage on many woody and herbaceous plants.
- Polygraphus proximus has been detected in the Moscow region. Mr Kulinich explained that no data is available on the pest distribution in the western part of Russia.
- Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, recently introduced in the Sochi region and threatening the ornamental palms in this area.
Mr Kulinich also explained that research is carried out to determine whether some Bursaphelenchus mucronatus populations can induce pine wilt disease, as Bursaphelenchus xylophilus can.
|'Wood packing materials as a source of harmful pest introductions
View a video prepared by EVIRA (FI) and VNIIKR (RU).
Factors favoring spread of Heterobasidion root rot in coniferous forests and preventive measures against it (Mr Gaitnieks, Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’)
Mr Gaitnieks presented information on the biology and damage caused by Heterobasidion annosum. The positive results obtained during experiments conducted in Latvia for the control of H. annosum using Phlebiopsis gigantea were presented.
Further development of risk management for the EU listed species, Anoplophora chinensis and A. glabripennis (Anoplorisk II) (Mr Hoch, BFW, Austria)
Mr Hoch presented the results of the Euphresco project Anoplorisk II. The project was a follow-up to Anoplorisk I and the aim of the project was to refine and validate a number of techniques that will help with detection and diagnosis of A. chinensis and A. glabripennis and to enable a set of management/detection techniques to be incorporated into contingency and management plans. Regarding detection of woodboring stages, accoustic detection and detection using sniffer dogs have been evaluated during the project. Although good results have been obtained with sniffer dogs, accoustic detection still needs additional work. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for the detection of A. glabripennis and A. chinensis has been developed and evaluated for larval stages. Although the analytical sensitivity is considered to be satisfactory a cross-reaction was observed in the test developed for A. glabripennis with A. chinensis. An evaluation of the detection of adult beetles with pheromone-kairomone baited traps was conducted, but very few adults were caught.
EPPO’s work on assessing risks to forestry, using Heterobasidion irregulare as an example (Ms Petter, EPPO Secretariat)
Ms Petter explained the process followed in the EPPO framework for identifying pest risks for the region. The process was illustrated with the example of Heterobasidion irregulare, a pest recommended for regulation at the Council session which took place just before the Colloquium. The presentation described the different steps followed for H. irregulare from early warning/horizon scanning through risk assessments and finally the identification of risk management measures.
Monochamus spp., insect vectors of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Mr Ravn, IGN, Denmark)
Mr Ravn presented the MONOCHAMUS project, and the first results of the Monochamus trapping studies conducted in Denmark. The objectives of the MONOCHAMUS project are:
- To optimize the monitoring methods using attractant traps
- Incidence mapping for B. xylophilus and possible vectors
- To evaluate the phenology of relevant vectors and their relationships with B. xylophilus
- To develop molecular identification tests based on molecular markers of selected specimens
Diagnostics and risk management for plant health threats in wood chips and bark for bio-energy imported from other continents (Mr Nicolaisen)
Mr Nicolaisen presented the main objectives and current ouputs of the Euphresco project Q-WOODCHIP. The objectives of the project are:
- Sampling strategies
- Priority list of pests
- Recommendations for pre-export treatments for pest reduction
- Detection and diagnosis of pests
- Determination of tree species and geographical origin
All activities are on going. Initially, the study mainly focused on the assessment of the probability of pest presence in chips imported from other continents and probability of pest entry to the EPPO region. The methodology of such assessment is being developed.
Chips, dust, hogwood and scrap – what are they and what are the risks? A recent EPPO Study on Wood Commodities (other than round wood, sawn wood and manufactured items) (Mr Orlinski, EPPO Secretariat)
Mr Orlinski gave an overview of the content of the EPPO study on Wood Commodities (other than round wood, sawn wood and manufactured items). The study initially prepared by a consultant was presented to different international groups (e.g. IFQRG, EFSA) and reviewed by an EPPO Expert Working Group and different EPPO bodies. The study is intended to support the work of risk assessors. All possible wood commodities were classified into different commodity types. Definitions were developed for those types that were not defined in the Glossary of phytosanitary terms. Some elements regarding the level of risk that can be attributed to different commodities depending on the pest(s) concerned, presence of bark, freshness of the material and particle size were also assessed. It was noted that information from NPPOs is needed to improve descriptions of these commodities and better evaluate their quantities, as well as to validate the study in terms of the risk identified.
A short session at the end of the Colloquium drew together a few points from the wide range of research activities which had been presented. These had covered:
Specific gaps identified included:
Opportunities identified included: