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Pest Risk Analysis

        EPPO and Pest Risk Analysis


One of EPPO’s main priorities is to prevent the introduction of dangerous pests (bacteria, fungi, insects, plants, viruses…) from other parts of the world, and to limit their spread within the region should they be introduced. In recent years, trade networks have expanded and diversified, increasing the risks of introducing pests to new geographical areas. Measures adopted by countries to protect their territories from these introductions should be technically justified and an International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) on Pest Risk Analysis (ISPM no. 11) has been developed in the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) framework. Since the 1990s, the following developments have taken place within EPPO:

  • EPPO has developed a decision-support scheme for Pest Risk Analysis and a computer program (CAPRA) to assist pest risk analysts in running the decision-support scheme - read more >>
  • A Panel on PRA development has been created - read more >>
  • Expert Working Groups (EWGs) are now being convened to conduct PRAs on specific pests - read more >>


EPPO Standards and CAPRA 



PRAs conducted by EPPO Expert Working Groups

EWGSince 2006, EPPO organizes meetings of Experts Working Groups which are conducting PRAs on specific pests following the EPPO Decision-support scheme and its computerized version CAPRA (see above). The conclusions resulting from these PRAs are addressed to the EPPO member countries only (the area potentially at risk that is considered during these PRAs is the EPPO region, not the other parts of the world).
To access PRA documents and data sheets (now stored in EPPO Global Database) click on the links.


  • Finalized PRAs
Pests (links to pest-specific documents in EPPO Global Database)
Final decision
Insects and mites  
Agrilus anxius A1 - 2011
Agrilus planipennis A1 - 2004
Apriona germari, A. rugicollis (A. japonica), A. cinerea Revised A1 - 2013
Aromia bungii New A1 - 2014
Aulacaspis yasumatsui Not added
Bactericera cockerelli A1 - 2012
Bactrocera invadens A1 - 2010
Diocalandra frumenti Not added
Drosophila suzukii A2 - 2011
Epitrix cucumeris, E. subcrinita, E. tuberis, E. papa Revised A1/A2 - 2010
Keiferia lycopersicella A1 - 2012
Lycorma delicatula New A1 - 2016
Megaplatypus mutatus A2 - 2007
Metamasius hemipterus A1 - 2009
Neoleucinodes elegantalis New A1 - 2014
Oemona hirta New A1 - 2013
Polygraphus proximus New A2 - 2014
Raoiella indica Not added
Saperda candida A1 - 2010
Tetranychus evansi A2 - 2008
Thaumatotibia leucotreta A2 - 2013
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus A1 - transferred to A2 in 2010
Meloidogyne enterolobii A2 - 2010
Fungi (and fungus-like)  
Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis New A2 - 2015
Heterobasidion irregulare New A2 - 2015
Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum A2 in 2013
Phytophthora lateralis A1 - transferred to A2 in 2011
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum A1 - 2012
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae A2 - 2012
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii A1 - 2009
Not added
Invasive plants  
Alternanthera philoxeroides New A2 - 2015
Ambrosia confertiflora List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Arctotheca calendula List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2014
Baccharis halimifolia A2 - 2013
Cabomba caroliniana List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2006
Cardiospermum grandiflorum List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2013
Crassula helmsii A2 - 2006
Eichhornia crassipes A2 - 2008
Gunnera tinctoria List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2014
Heracleum mantegazzianum List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Heracleum sosnowskyi A2 - 2009
Heracleum persicum A2 - 2009
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides A2 - 2005
Ludwigia grandiflora A2 - 2011
Ludwigia peploides A2 - 2011
Lysichiton americanus A2 - 2005 but deleted in 2009
Microstegium vimineum New A2 - 2015
Myriophyllum heterophyllum New A2 - 2015
Parthenium hysterophorus New A2 - 2014
Polygonum perfoliatum A2 - 2008
Pueraria montana var. lobata A2 - 2006
Senecio inaequidens List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2004
Solanum elaeagnifolium A2 - 2006
Sicyos angulatus List of Invasive Alien Plants - 2005


  • PRAs which are under development or planned in the near future
Insects and mites  
Tomato pests EWG in 2015-12. PRAs under consultation.
Viruses and viroids  
'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' (Almond witches' broom) EWG planned in 2016-12
Meloidogyne mali EWG in 2016-05. PRA under consultation
Invasive plants (part of LIFE IAP project)  
Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes EWG in 2016-05. PRAs under consultation
Cardiospermum grandiflorum and Cinnamomum camphora EWG in 2016-10. PRAs under consultation
Ehrharta calycina and Andropogon virginicus EWG in 2016-10. PRAs under consultation



Other PRAs conducted in the EPPO framework

You can find here a list of PRAs which have been carried out or studied by different EPPO Panels (e.g. Panel on Phytosanitary Measures, Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry, Panel on Invasive Alien Plants). Most of these PRAs have been originally prepared by NPPOs of EPPO member countries or by the EPPO Secretariat. As for the PRAs carried out by specific EWGs (see above), all resulting documents (full or summary PRAs, reports of PRA and PRM, draft datasheets) are only addressed to the NPPOs of EPPO member countries.



Links to national PRAs from EPPO member countries


Useful databases and links for performing PRAs

  • General information

Useful datasets for PRA can be accessed via CAPRA


  • Conferences and Workshops on PRA

CLIMEX course (Angers, 2010-03-15/18)

Atelier de formation de base sur l’Analyse du Risque Phytosanitaire (incluant les plantes exotiques envahissantes) (Hammamet, Tunisie, 2010-02-09/12)

EPPO training workshop on PRA (Limassol, CY, 2008-11-11/14)

CLIMEX courses (Madrid, ES, 2008-10-13/16, and 2008-10-20/23)

Training material on pest risk analysis based on IPPC standards (2007-12, FAO IPP Portal)

EFSA's 10th Scientific Colloquium - Pest risk assessment - Science in support of phytosanitary decision making in the European Community (Parma, IT, 2007-12-06/07)

International Plant Health Risk Analysis Workshop (Niagara Falls, CA, 2005-10-24 / 28)

Workshop on Invasive Alien Species and the IPPC Braunschweig (Germany, 2003-09-22/26)

2nd EPPO Workshop on Pest Risk Analysis (Budapest, HU, 2004-10-05/07)