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Plant Protection Worldwide

 

Global structures

In the last 10 years, the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations of the GATT has developed its Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) whose main aim, in the phytosanitary section, is to ensure that any phytosanitary measures which act as non-tariff barriers to trade can be technically justified.

This has led National Plant Protection Organizations worldwide to develop global structures for international harmonization of phytosanitary measures and their technical justification. In particular:

  • the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) has been revised. The new revised text was approved by FAO Conference in 1997 and came into force in October 2005. It puts particular emphasis on International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) and their technical justification by Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).
    Get a Russian translation of the IPPC (done by the EPPO Secretariat).
     
  • an IPPC Secretariat has been created within FAO.
     
  • a Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM, formerly ICPM) has been established by FAO, which all IPPC contracting parties can join. This CPM approves the ISPMs and undertakes other activities in support of international plant quarantine.
     
  • the Standards Committee (SC) of the CPM, formerly Committee of Experts on Phytosanitary Measures (CEPM) prepares standards for approval by FAO or the CPM.
     
  • the SPS Committee of the World Trade Organization (WTO) maintains the SPS Agreement.

 

Role of EPPO

EPPO is a regional plant protection organization (RPPO). The new revised text of the IPPC allows for the creation of RPPOs to act as regional coordinating bodies to cooperate with the IPPC Secretariat and the Commission in developing ISPMs, and to establish regional standards (which may be considered as candidates for ISPMs). Within the SPS Agreement (Annex A), EPPO is one of the regional organizations operating within the framework of the IPPC which cooperates with the IPPC Secretariat in developing ISPMs.

EPPO has created a Panel on ICPM affairs which meets several times a year to discuss draft standards, submit EPPO comments to FAO, advise its CPM members and prepare positions to be raised in the CPM. EPPO circulates material of global interest among its members and ensures discussion and consultation in all appropriate technical bodies.

EPPO cooperates informally with the Commission of the European Union to ensure a well balanced approach on international questions.

 

Regional Plant Protection Organizations

Under the International Plant Protection Convention (article IX of the text revised in 1997) the Regional Plant Protection Organizations function as coordinating bodies in the different continents to further the objectives of the Convention, and to gather and disseminate information. Each RPPO has its own independent statutes and conducts its own regional cooperation programme. RPPOs produce regional standards for their members. They cooperate with each other and with FAO. In particular, they meet in Technical Consultations to promote the development and use of relevant standards and to encourage inter-regional cooperation on phytosanitary measures for controlling quarantine pests and preventing their introduction and spread.

APPPC
Far East, Indian subcontinent, Australia and New Zealand
CAN Andean community
COSAVE Southern cone of South America
CPPC Caribbean
IAPSC/CPI Africa
NAPPO North America
OEPP/EPPO Europe and Mediterranean
OIRSA Central America
PPPO Pacific
NEPPO Near East

 

IPPC-related meetings

The EPPO Secretariat, or representatives from EPPO countries, participate in many meetings related to the IPPC.

Short reports of these meetings can be viewed here.

 

International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs)

As a result of the work done by the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM), the Standards Committee (SC) and the various CPM technical bodies, international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPMs) have now been approved by FAO.

 

Useful worldwide links