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Grapevine red blotch-associated virus

 

Why: Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a newly identified virus of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and a putative member of a new genus (which remains to be characterized) within the family Geminiviridae. This virus is associated with red blotch disease that was first reported in California in 2008, and then found in the major grape-growing areas in North America. As GRBaV causes an emerging disease which affects the profitability of vineyards by substantially reducing fruit quality and ripening, the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures suggested its addition to the EPPO Alert List.

Where: initially, GRBaV was only reported from North America but it has been found in Asia, in the Republic of Korea. Although of rather recent description, it is thought that GRBaV has been present in North American vineyards for a long time. The symptom similarity to leafroll viruses probably explains the delay in recognizing and characterizing the causal agent of red blotch disease.
EPPO region: absent.
Asia: Korea (Republic of).
North America: Canada (Ontario), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Idaho, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Washington).

On which plants: grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The disease affects red cultivars (e.g. Cabernet franc, Cabernet sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvèdre, Petit Verdot, Petite Syrah, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel), white cultivars (e.g. Chardonnay, Riesling), as well as table grapes and some rootstocks. GRBaV has been detected in grapevine collections, nursery stock and established vineyards.

Damage: in red grapevine cultivars, foliar symptoms consist of red blotches, marginal reddening, and red veins. In white cultivars, foliar disease symptoms are less conspicuous and generally involve irregular chlorotic areas that may become necrotic late in the season. Some white cultivars, such as Sauvignon Blanc may remain asymptomatic. Foliar symptoms first appear on older leaves at the base of the canopy in June and July and progressively move toward the top of the canopy in later months. Symptoms caused by GRBaV resemble those of leafroll viruses, but GRBaV does not cause leaf rolling, the red discolouration remains blotchy and irregular, and the smaller veins become red instead of remaining green. In addition to foliar symptoms, GRBaV affects fruit quality by delaying fruit ripening and reducing sugar content at harvest (i.e. grapes are slow to develop sugar levels sufficient for winemaking and some never fully mature).
Pictures can be viewed on the Internet

Transmission: GRBaV is graft-transmissible and the most likely source of contamination of new vineyards is infected plant material. Although spread of GRBaV by a vector has not been confirmed, the patchy distribution of infected vines in vineyards and the increase in the number of diseased vines over time suggests that a vector is involved in disease spread. Preliminary glasshouse experiments have shown that GRBaV could be transmitted by Erythroneura ziczac (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae - Virginia creeper leafhopper) and by Spissistilus festinus (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from infected to healthy vines. Studies made in Californian vineyards suggest that the main vector is probably S. festinus. However, further studies are needed to understand how the virus is spread under field conditions and determine the role of insects in disease epidemiology.

Pathway: plants for planting of grapevine from countries where GRBaV occurs.

Possible risks: grapevine is a crop of major economic importance in the EPPO region. GRBaV has been shown to negatively affect grapevine production and in particular, the quality of the berries. As the epidemiology of red blotch disease remains to be clarified, and in particular the role of possible vectors, the main control measures rely on the use of healthy planting material, and in some cases on the elimination of diseased plants. At present, the presence of GRBaV has been confirmed only in North America. However, in a study conducted in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in California, grapevine accessions originating from countries outside North America (including European countries) tested positive for the virus. It cannot be concluded from these results that the virus occurs in those countries, but it seems wise that grapevine-growing countries verify the presence or absence of GRBaV in their crops, and eventually include this new virus in certification schemes to prevent its spread.

Sources
Al Rwahnih M, Dave A, Anderson MM, Rowhani M, Uyemoto JK, Sudarshana MR (2013) Association of a DNA virus with grapevines affected by red blotch disease in California. Phytopathology 103(10), 1069-1076.
Al Rwahnih M, Rowhani A, Golino DA, Islas CM, Preece JE, Sudarshana MR (2015) Detection and genetic diversity of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus isolates in table grape accessions in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in California. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 37(1), 130-135.
Bahder BW, Zalom FG, Jayanth M, Sudarshana MR (2016) Phylogeny of Geminivirus coat protein sequences and digital PCR aid in identifying Spissistilus festinus as a vector of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus. Phytopathology 106(10), 1223-1230.

INTERNET
- Cornell University. Cieniewicz E, Fuchs M (2014) Grapevine red blotch disease. http://nysipm.cornell.edu/nysipm/factsheets/grapes/diseases/gv_red_blotch.pdf
- Ontario (CA). Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Grapevine red blotch associated virus: A newly identified disease in vineyards. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/news/hortmatt/2013/22hrt13a1.htm
- University of California Cooperative Extension. Mendocino county. Fact Sheet. National Clean Plant Network. http://cemendocino.ucanr.edu/files/165430.pdf
Krenz B, Thompson JR, Fuchs M, Perry KL (2012) Complete genome sequence of a new circular DNA virus from grapevine. Journal of Virology 86(14), p 7715.
Krenz B, Thompson JR, McLane HL, Fuchs M, Perry KL (2014) Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is widespread in the United States. Phytopathology 104(11), 1232-1240.
Lim S, Igori D, Zhao F, Moon JS, Cho IS, Choi GS (2016) First report of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus on grapevine in Korea. Plant Disease 100(9), p 1957.
Poojari S, Alabi OJ, Fofanov VY, Naidu RA (2013) A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family Geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing. PLoS One 8(6), e64194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064194
Stamp JA, Wei A (2013) The impact of Grapevine red blotch virus. Wine Business Monthly 3, 56-67.
Stamp JA, Wei A (2014) Red blotch disease and the virus status of CDFA-certified grapevine stock. Wine Business Monthly 8, 1-10.

EPPO RS 2015/093, 2017/072, 2017/093

Panel review date 2017-03
Entry date 2015-05

 

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