Spotted wing drosophila
NOTE: a full datasheet is being prepared, in the meantime you can view here the data which was previously available from the EPPO Alert List.
Why: Drosophila suzukii is an Asian pest of fruit crops which has almost simultaneously been introduced into North America and in Italy (in 2008 and 2009, respectively). In 2010, it was reported from other European countries. Because the pest has a high potential for spread and can cause economic damage to many fruit crops, the EPPO Secretariat decided to add D. suzukii to the Alert List.
Adults of Drosophila suzukii (left: male - right: female). Please note that because of the angle at which the male specimen was photographed, wings appear oval but in reality they are elongate. View more pictures
Pictures were kindly provided by Dr Gary Steck, Florida Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Gainesville (US)
EPPO region: France (first records in 2010 - Aquitaine, Corse, Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, and Rhône-Alpes), Italy (first records in 2009 - Campania, Liguria, Trentino-Alto Adige, Piemonte, Toscana), Russia (Far East), Slovenia (first records in autumn 2010), Spain (near Barcelona), Switzerland (first record in 2011, in Grisons and Ticino cantons).
Asia: China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Chandigarh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu), Korea Democratic People’s Republic, Korea Republic (including Cheju island), Myanmar, Pakistan, Russia (Primor’e region - Far East), Taiwan, Thailand.
North America: Canada (British Columbia, first found in autumn 2009 in the Fraser Valley area and caught in a cherry orchard in the Central Okanagan Valley), USA (Hawaii introduced into the 1980s; California (2008), Florida (2009), Louisiana (2010), Michigan (2011), North Carolina (2010), Oregon (2009), South Carolina (2010), Utah (2010), Washington (2009), Wisconsin (2011)).
On which plants: D. suzukii has a wide host range and can attack many fruit crops, including small fruit crops, fruit trees and grapevine. Its host range includes: Actinidia spp. (kiwis), Diospyros kaki (persimmons), Ficus carica (figs), Fragaria ananassa (strawberries), Malus domestica (apples), Prunus avium (sweet cherries), P. domestica (plums), P. persica (peaches), Pyrus pyrifolia (Asian pears), Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberries), R. loganobaccus (loganberries), R. idaeus (raspberries), R. laciniatus (evergreen blackberries), R. ursinus (marionberries), and other blackberries (Rubus spp.), Vaccinium spp. (blueberries), Vitis vinifera (table and wine grapes).
|Damage: Although the vast majority of Drosophila species are not fruit pests (larvae developing only in damaged or rotting fruits), D. suzukii is one of the very few Drosophila species which are able to feed on healthy ripening fruit while they are still attached to the plant. Damage is caused by larvae feeding on fruit pulp inside the fruit and berries. Very rapidly, infested fruit begin to collapse around the feeding site. Thereafter, secondary fungal or bacterial infections may contribute to further fruit deterioration (i.e. rotting). In the USA, severe losses have been reported in cherry production in California (estimated at 25% state-wide in 2009). Several berry growers in California, Oregon and Washington, and peach growers from Oregon have reported up to 100% crop losses in some fields.
Adults are brownish yellow flies with black bands on the abdomen, and bright red eyes. Males (2.6 - 2.8 mm long) have a dark spot along the front edge of each wing (hence its English common name), and two rows of combs on each fore tarsus. Females (3.2 - 3.4 mm long) do not have spots on their wings, nor tarsal combs. On average, females can lay 1 to 3 eggs at each oviposition puncture (and more than 300 eggs in their lifetime), but as many females may visit the same piece of fruit up to 60-70 insects may emerge from a single fruit. Larvae (up to 3.5 mm) have white cylindrical bodies, tapered in their anterior part with elevated posterior spiracles. There are three larval instars before pupation takes place. Pupae (2-3 mm long) are reddish brown with two small projections at the end, and can be inside or outside the fruit.
Pictures can be viewed on the Internet:
Reproduction in Drosophila species is particularly rapid with a short life cycle of 1 to 2 weeks depending of the climatic conditions, therefore a single pair of flies can produce hundreds of offspring within a couple of weeks. In Japan, D. suzukii has about 13 generations per year, and predictions made for the Californian climate are of 3 to 10 generations per year. D. suzukii seems to prefer high humidity and moderate temperatures. Cold winters do not seem to limit the insect’s survival, considering its establishment in Northern China and the Southern part of Hokkaido (Japan).
Oviposition scars and
Dissemination: Adults are highly mobile. The rapid spread which is currently being observed in North America demonstrates the high capacity of this insect for natural spread. Over long distances, trade of infested fruit and plants can ensure pest dissemination. For the moment, it is not known how D. suzukii was introduced into North America and Europe.
Pathway: Plants for planting, fruit of D. suzukii host plants.
Possible risks: Many host plants of D. suzukii (e.g. Fragaria, Prunus, Rubus, Vaccinium, Vitis vinifera) are economically important crops across the EPPO region. The high reproduction rate and capacity for natural spread probably render containment or eradication very difficult. In addition, early infestations are difficult to detect (small oviposition scars) and these infested fruit are likely to be traded undetected. For the moment, data is lacking on the potential of establishment of D. suzukii in the EPPO region, but the fact that D. suzukii seems to favour cool and humid climate (e.g. in central coastal California) suggests that it probably has the potential to establish in most parts of the EPPO region. Preliminary results from Climex/Maxent modelling studies (done for North America only) showed that D. suzukii has the potential to establish along the west coast of USA and Canada (e.g. British Columbia), and in large parts of Eastern USA. For the moment, data is lacking about field (e.g. ‘attract-and-kill strategy’) and post-harvest treatments (e.g. cold treatments, fumigation, irradiation) but investigations are being initiated in the USA. It is considered that sanitation techniques (fruit removal, pruning) could help to reduce pest populations. There is no data on biological control but it is mentioned in the Japanese literature that larvae of D. suzukii were naturally parasitized by a species belonging to the genus Phaenopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae). Although data is lacking about the insect biology and its economic impact, preliminary observations made in countries where the pest has been introduced, suggest that D. suzukii is a serious threat to many fruit crops in the EPPO region.
Anonymous (2010) Phyto Régions. Pourtour méditerranéen. Nouvelle mouche. Phytoma – La Défense des Végétaux no. 636, p 6.
Calabria G, Máca J, Bächli G, Serra L, Pascual M (2010) First records of the potential pest species Drosophila suzukii (Diptera : Drosophilidae) in Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology (in press) DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2010.01583.x
Deng Q, Zeng Q, Qian Y, Li C, Yang Y (2007) Research on the karyotype and evolution of Drosophila melanogaster species group. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 34(3), 196-213.
Gupta JP (1974) The family Drosophilidae in India. Indian Biologist 5, 7-30.
Grassi A, Palmieri L, Giongo L (2009) [Drosophila (Sophophora) suzukii (Matsumura) – New pest of small fruit crops in Trentino]. Terra Trentina no. 10, 19-23 (in Italian). Available online: http://www.ufficiostampa.provincia.tn.it/binary/pat_ufficio_stampa/terra_trentina/PATTN_Not_TerraTrentina_10.1259743077.pdf
Hauser M, Gaimari S, Damus M (2009) Drosophila suzukii new to North America. Fly Times no. 43, 12-15. Available online: http://www.nadsdiptera.org/News/FlyTimes/issue43.pdf
Kanzawa T (1936) [Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats]. Journal of Plant Protection (Tokyo) 23(1/3), 66-70 (in Japanese) (abst.).
Kanzawa T (1939) [Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats]. Kofu, Yamanashi Agric. Exp. Sta., 49 pp (in Japanese) (abst.).
Kikkawa H, Peng FT (1938) Drosophila species of Japan and adjacent localities. Japanese Journal of Zoology 7, 507-552.
Momma E (1965) The dynamic aspects of Drosophila populations in semi-natural areas. I. Associations and relative numbers of species. Part 1. Results of trapping. Japanese Journal of Genetics 40(4), 275-295.
NPPO of France (2010-06, 2010-12).
NPPO of Italy (2009-11, 2010-04, 2010-09, 2010-11, 2011-01).
NPPO of Switzerland (2011-08).
O’Grady PM, Beardsley JW, Perreira WD (2002) New records for introduced Drosophilidae (Diptera) in Hawai’i. Bishop Museum occasional papers no. 69, 34-35.
Parshad R, Paika IJ (1964) Drosophilid survey of India. II. Taxonomy and cytology of the subgenus Sophophora (Drosophila). Research Bulletin of Punjab University 15, 225-252.
Qian Y, Zhang W, Deng Q, Zhang J, Zeng Q, Liu Y, Li S (2006) [Karyotype diversity of Drosophila melanogaster species group in China]. Biodiversity Science 14(3), 188-205 (in Chinese).
Seljak G (2011) [Spotted wing Drosophila - Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), a new pest of berry-fruit in Slovenia]. Sadjarstvo 22(3), 3-5 (in Slovene).
Singh BK, Dash S (1998) Drosophilidae of Kumaun region, India with the description of four new species (Insecta: Diptera). Proceedings of the Zoological Society (Calcutta) 51(1), 45-56.
Storozhenko SY, Sidorenko VS, Lafer GS, Kholin SK (2003) [The international biodiversity observation year (IBOY): insects of forest ecosystems of the Primorye region]. A. I. Kurentsov's Annual Memorial Meetings 13, 31-52. Available online: http://www.biosoil.ru/kurentsov/13/xiii-02/P-xiii-02.pdf
Tan CC, Hsu TC, Sheng TC (1949) Known Drosophila species in China with descriptions of twelve new species. University of Texas Publication 4920, 196–206.
Toda MJ (1991) Drosophilidae (Diptera) in Myanmar (Burma) VII. The Drosophila melanogaster species-group, excepting the D. montium species-subgroup. Oriental Insects 25, 69-94.
Uchino K (2005) Distribution and seasonal occurrence of cherry drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) injurious to blueberry in Chiba Prefecture. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society 52, 95-97 (abst.).
Wu SR, Tai HK, Li ZY, Wang X, Yang SS, Sun W, Xiao C (2007) Field evaluation of different trapping methods of cherry fruit fly, Drosophila suzukii. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University 22(5), 776-778 (abst.).
Arakelian (2009) Data sheet on Cherry vinegar fly (Drosophila suzukii). County of Los Angeles (June 2009). Department of Agricultural Commissioner/Weights and Measures. http://www.sepdn.org/DesktopModules/ViewDocument.aspx?DocumentID=3168
British Columbia. Agriculture and Lands (Canada). Spotted wing drosophila (fruit fly) Pest Alert. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/swd.htm
Damus M (2009) Some preliminary results from Climex and Maxent distribution modelling of Drosophila suzukii. Version 2 (2009-10-15). http://entomology.oregonstate.edu/sites/default/files/DrosophilaSuzukiiInfestationModel.pdf
Dreves AJ; Walton V, Fisher G (2009) A new pest attacking healthy ripening fruit in Oregon: Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Oregon State University. Extension Service (October 2009). http://berrygrape.org/files/Dsuzukii_alert.pdf
Fruit-et-legumes.net. Actualités Techniques. Présentations de la réunion Drosophila suzukii (2010-07-22, CTIFL, Balandran, FR). http://www.fruits-et-legumes.net/ACTUALITES/DrosophilaSuzukii/BilanReunionDSuzukii.pdf
Steck GJ, Dixon W, Dean D (2009) Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a fruit pest new to North America. Pest Alert. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/drosophila_suzukii.html
Halbert SE (2009) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (the spotted wing Drosophila), a state record. Tri-Ology 48(4), (unpaginated). http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/triology/4804/triology_4804.pdf
Hoddle MK (2009) Spotted wing drosophila or cherry vinegar fly, Drosophila suzukii. Center for Invasive Species Research. University of California (UC Riverside). http://cisr.ucr.edu/spotted_wing_drosophila_cherry_vinegar_fly.html
MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (2009) Import Risk Analysis: Table grapes (Vitis vinifera) from China, 314 pp. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/files/regs/imports/risk/table-grapes-china-ra.pdf
NAPIS - Pest Tracker (US). Map of drosophilid fly, Drosophila suzukii. http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/searchmap.php?selectName=IOAPAUA
North Carolina State University. Newsroom (2010-10-19). Invasive fruit fly found in North Carolina. http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/192mkburrack/
Oregon State University. Spotted wing Drosophila. http://swd.hort.oregonstate.edu
Stocks S (2011) Additional detections of the spotted wing drosophila. National Plant Diagnostic Network. First Detector Network News 6(3), p 1. http://www.sepdn.org/webfm_send/250
University of California (UC Davis).
- Detections till 2008. May. 2009. http://cemariposa.ucdavis.edu/files/67726.pdf
- UC IMP Online. State wide integrated pest management program. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii: a new pest in California. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r105400311.html
Utah State University. Pest fact sheet ENT-140-10, September 2010. Spotted wing drosophila. http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/ENT-140-10.pdf
Walsh (2009) Spotted wing drosophila could pose threat of Washington fruit growers. Washington State University Extension. http://sanjuan.wsu.edu/Documents/SWD11.09.pdf
EPPO RS 2010/007, 2010/111, 2010/112, 2010/178, 2010/179, 2010/180, 2010/209, 2011/057, 2011/080, 2011/088, 2011/088, 2011/04, 2011/172
|Panel review date 2016-05||
Entry date 2010-01