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Aromia bungii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

Redneck longhorned beetle

 

NOTE: Aromia bungii has now been added to the EPPO A1 List. A full datasheet is being prepared, in the meantime you can view here the data which was previously available from the EPPO Alert List.

Why: In 2011, the presence of Aromia bungii was recorded for the first time in one location in Germany. In 2012, its presence was also reported from Campania, Italy. In both countries, eradication measures have been taken. Because A. bungii is a fruit tree pest originating from Asia which was previously not known to occur in the EPPO region, the NPPO of Germany and the EPPO Panel on Phytosanitary Measures suggested its addition to the EPPO Alert List.

Where: A. bungii is thought to originate from the temperate regions of China.
EPPO region: Germany (few specimens observed in 2011 in a private garden in Bayern, under eradication), Italy (Campania region in 2012: in urban areas between Napoli and Pozzuoli; Lombardia region in 2013: in Sedriano; under eradication). In 2008, an interception of A. bungii had been reported by the United Kingdom. Three beetles were discovered among wooden pallets in a warehouse in Bristol but the insect did not establish (no further specimens or signs of presence were found).
Asia: China (present throughout China but more prevalent in the central and northern provinces), Japan (found in 2013 in Aichi prefecture), Korea (Republic of), Korea (Peoples’ Democratic Republic of), Mongolia, Taiwan, Vietnam. Details on its distribution in Asia are generally lacking, therefore this distribution is only preliminary.
North America: Absent, intercepted only. In July 2008, A. bungii was intercepted in a manufacturing plant, importing products from China and Taiwan, located at the port of Seattle (Washington state, US) in July 2008.

 
Aromia bungii
Courtesy: Raffaele Griffo (IT)
View more pictures >

On which plants: In China, the main host plants are Prunus species (Rosaceae), in particular peach (Prunus persica) and apricot (P. armeniaca), and to a lesser extent plum (P. domestica) and cherry (P. avium). The following tree species are also reported to be host plants of A. bungii but without any indication of the extent and severity of damage: Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Bambusa textilis (Poaceae), Diospyros virginiana (Ebenaceae), Olea europea (olive - Oleaceae), Populus alba (Salicaceae), Pterocarya stenoptera (Juglandaceae), Punica granatum (pomegranate - Lythraceae), Schima superba (Theaceae).

Damage: Larvae of A. bungii bore galleries (17-22 cm long) in the trunk and larger lateral branches, leading to loss of fruit production and weakening of the trees. Exit holes and frass are signs of the presence of the pest. Larvae infest the subcortical area beneath the bark and the sapwood (less commonly the heartwood). A. bungii attacks healthy to slightly stressed trees. Adults are black cerambycids (approximately 40 mm long) with glossy elytra and a distinctively red pronotum (although some forms may be completely black). Data on the biology of A. bungii is generally lacking. In Northern China, it is reported that one generation may take 2 to 3 years, the insect overwintering at various larval stages inside galleries. Larvae start feeding in early or mid-April with a peak of feeding activity from May to June. Pupation takes place at the end of June and adults emerge from late June until early August. Eggs are laid in bark crevices on the trunk and main branches at the beginning of July and hatch after 8-9 days (mid-July). Adults emit a particular odour to keep natural enemies at bay when they are disturbed.

Dissemination: No data is available on the natural spread of A. bungii, but as in the case for the other cerambycids (e.g. Anoplophora spp.) it is considered that adults can only fly over rather short distances. The two incidents reported from the United Kingdom and USA strongly suggested that imports of goods from Asia could transport the pest to other continents. The most likely pathways are suspected to be wood packaging material (because Populus alba is reported to be a host plant) and trade of nursery plants (ornamentals, fruit tree species).

Pathway: Plants for planting, wood, wood packaging material from countries where A. bungii occurs.

Possible risks: Prunus species are widely grown across the EPPO region for ornamental purposes and fruit production, and are of major economic importance. In China, A. bungii is considered to be a common pest of peach and apricot. The fact that it may also attack other important trees cultivated for fruit (e.g. olive, pomegranate) or wood production (e.g. Populus alba) adds to the risk. Data is lacking on the possible control methods against the pest, but as with control methods against other tree borers, they are most likely to be difficult to apply in practice. In the Chinese literature, there are reports of trials using nematodes (e.g. Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae) as biocontrol agents against A. bungii, but it is not known how extensively and effectively these treatments can be used in the field. Considering the length of the biological cycle and the hidden behaviour of larvae, A. bungii is difficult to detect on infested plants or wood. An Express-PRA was conducted in Germany and concluded that despite a general lack of information about A. bungii, this pest probably has the potential to establish in most parts of the EPPO region and presents a high risk.

Sources                       
Burmeister EG, Hendrich L, Balke M (2012) Der Asiatische Moschusbock Aromia bungii (Faldermann, 1835) – Erstfund für Deutschland (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Nachrichtenblatt der bayerischen Entomologen 61(1/2), 29-32.
JKI (2012-02-27) Express PRA zu Aromia bungii by Schrader G and Schröder T. (in German). http://pflanzengesundheit.jki.bund.de/dokumente/upload/0ec1b_aromia_bungii-ex-pra.pdf
Liu Z, Zhang GI, Li L, Zong J (1993) [Biological control of peach rednecked longicorn Aromia bungii with entomopathogenic nematodes]. Chinese Journal of Biological Control 9(4), p 186 (in Chinese).
NPPO of Germany (2012-04).
NPPO of Italy (2012-10, 2013-03, 2013-08).
INTERNET
A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi province, China Teaching syllabus of Northwest A&F University. Chapter 14. Branch borers by Wu Junxiang and Li Yiping. http://210.27.80.89/2005/nongyekongchun/page/Agricultural%20Entomplogy%20(PDF)/Chapter%2014%20%20Branch%20borers.pdf
AgriNews (2013-06-21) The first longicorn beetle in Japan confirmed in Aichi, damaging cherry and Japanese apricot trees. http://english.agrinews.co.jp/?p=482
Aichi Prefectoral Government. News of 2013-06-18 (in Japanese). http://www.pref.aichi.jp/byogaichu/2013/tokusyuhou/tokusyuhou2402.pdf

Barcoding Fauna Bavarica. Der Asiatische Moschusbock. Ein bayerischer Neubürger: Der Asiatische Moschusbock Aromia bungii (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) – Neumeldung für Deutschland. http://www.faunabavarica.de/art-des-monats/moschusbock
Decreto Dirigenziale n. 426 del 14/11/2012 ‘Misure fitosanitarie regionali di controllo ed eradicazione di Aromia bungii in Campania ai sensi del Decreto Legislativo 19 agosto 2005, n. 214 et sue modifiche’. http://www.agricoltura.regione.campania.it/difesa/files/DRD_426-14-11-12.pdf
Fera News of 2010-09-24. Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and other exotic longhorn beetles by S. Reid and R. Cannon. http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/showNews.cfm?id=454
Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale – Regione Campania. Cerambicide dal collo rosso. http://www.agricoltura.regione.campania.it/difesa/aromia.html
USDA/APHIS/PPQ. New Pest Advisory Group (June 2009) NPAG Report, Aromia bungii (Faldermann). Redneck longhorned beetle, Coleoptera/Cerambycidae. http://www.scribd.com/doc/74311967/Aromia-Bungii-Report

EPPO RS 2012/090, 2012/204, 2013/050, 2013/187, 2013/188

Panel review date 2014-03
Entry date 2012-05

 

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