NOTE: 'Ca. L. solanacearum' (Solanaceous haplotypes) and its vector Bactericera cockerelli have now been added to the EPPO A1 List. A full datasheet is being prepared, in the meantime you can view here the data which was previously available from the EPPO Alert List.
|Why: A new bacterial species ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (another name ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ has also been proposed but for the moment it is not entirely clear whether they correspond to the same pathogen – for simplification the EPPO Secretariat has considered them as synonymous) has been found in association with serious diseases of tomatoes, potatoes and other solanaceous crops observed in the Americas, and recently discovered in New Zealand. In particular, it was found associated with a potato disease called ‘zebra chip’ which has caused significant economic losses, by reducing both yield and quality of potato crops. The tomato/potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (syn. Paratrioza cockerelli, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is strongly suspected to be the vector of this new bacterium.
|Joseph E. Munyaneza (USDA-ARS)
Since its addition to the EPPO Alert List in 2009, ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ has been detected in several European countries in carrot crops (and to a lesser extent in celery) in association with other psyllid species (Bactericera trigonica and Trioza apicalis). However, both ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ and B. cockerelli have not been detected in potato or tomato crops in the EPPO region.
Where: The geographical distribution given below is essentially based on reports of disease symptoms. However, the presence of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ has been confirmed in New Zealand, in Mexico (Coahuila, Sinaloa), and the USA (California, Kansas, Texas). As molecular tools are now available to detect specifically ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’, further studies will probably better determine its geographical distribution.
EPPO region: Absent in Solanaceae crops but recently detected on Apiaceae in Finland (carrot, in association with T. apicalis), Norway (carrot, in association with T. apicalis), Spain (Comunidad Valenciana, Castilla-La Mancha, Tenerife - on carrot and celery, in association with B. trigonica), Sweden (carrots, in association with T. apicalis).
North America: Mexico, USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyoming).
Central America: Guatemala, Honduras.
Oceania: New Zealand.
The distribution of the psyllid vector, B. cockerelli is the following:
The distribution of both B. trigonica and T. apicalis needs to be further studied.
|Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State
University (US) - Bugwood.org
On which plants: Potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and capsicum (Capsicum annuum). The presence of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ was detected in symptomless Solanum betaceum (tamarillo) and Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) in the Americas and New Zealand. These plants were collected from a garden in South Auckland, located close to a commercial glasshouse where infected tomatoes had been found. For the moment, it is not known whether S. betaceum and P. peruviana only act as symptomless reservoirs of the pathogen or can also develop disease symptoms. Although it can be found on many plants (numerous species in 20 plant families), the psyllid vector (B. cockerelli) has been reported to complete its life cycle only on Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae and Lamiaceae. Its preferred hosts include aubergine, capsicum tomato, and potato.
Carrots (Daucus carota) and celery (Apium graveolens) in the EPPO region (see above).
Damage: On potato symptoms include: purple top, shortened internodes, smaller leaves, enlargement of the stems, swollen axillary buds and aerial tubers. Potato chips made from infected tubers present dark stripes which become markedly more visible after frying (hence the disease name ‘Zebra chip’), leading to rejection from the potato chip industry. When planted, infected tubers may not produce plants. ‘Zebra chip’ disease has been reported to cause severe economic losses in potato production (up to 60 % yield losses and significant rejections from the industry). Although significant economic damage has been reported on potato crops in Guatemala, Mexico and the Southwestern USA, the economic impact of the disease in New Zealand is yet to be determined.
On tomato symptoms include: ‘spiky’ and chlorotic apical growth, leaf curling, mottling, plant stunting, and in some cultivars fruit deformation.
On capsicum affected plants develop: chlorotic or pale green leaves, sharp tapering of leaf apex, upward leaf curling, shortened internodes and petioles, necrosis of apical meristem, flower abortion, and plant stunting.
On carrots: affected plants show leaf curling, yellow and purple discolouration of leaves, stunting of roots and shoots, and proliferation of secondary roots.
Transmission: Preliminary transmission trials strongly suggested that B. cokerelli is a vector of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’. It has been demonstrated that the psyllid can acquire the bacterium but transmission needs to be confirmed. In addition, many other aspects of the disease epidemiology remain to be studied (e.g. transmission through seeds or grafts). Over long distances, trade of infected plants and psyllids can spread the bacterium. In the EPPO region, ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ has been found in association with other psyllid species, B. trigonica and T. apicalis, and also in mixed infections with other pathogens(e.g. Aster yellows phytoplasma, Spiroplasma citri).
Pathway: Plants for planting of host plants, tomato and capsicum fruits? potato tubers? seeds? infected psyllids?
Possible risks: Solanaceous crops such as potatoes and tomatoes are extensively grown in the EPPO region and are of major economic importance. For the moment, there is little experience with disease control, and it is likely that it will be essentially targeted against the psyllid vector (or possibly the use of resistant cultivars). Although many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ need to be further investigated, it is advisable to avoid its introduction into the solanaceous crops of the EPPO region, as well as of its psyllid vector, B. cockerelli. For the moment, further studies are needed to better understand the different situations that are observed between the Americas/New Zealand and European countries.
Abad JA, Bandhla M, French-Monar RD, Liefting LW, Clover GRG (2008) First report of the detection of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in Zebra chip disease-infected potato plants in the United States. Plant Disease 93(1), p 108.
Alfaro-Fernández A, Siverio F, Cebrián MC, Villaescusa FJ, Font MI (2012) ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ associated with Bactericera trigonica-affected carrots in the Canary Islands. Plant Disease 96(4), p 581-582.
Alfaro-Fernández A, Cebrián MC, Villaescusa FJ, Hermoso de Mendoza, A, Ferrándiz JC, Sanjuán S, Font, MI (2012) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in carrot in mainland Spain. Plant Disease 96(4), p 582.
Biosecurity Australia (2009) Draft pest risk analysis report for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ in fresh fruit, potato tubers, nursery stock and its vector the tomato-potato psyllid. Biosecurity Australia, Canberra, 110 pp. http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/1108691/Candidatus_Liberibacter_psyllaurous_draft_PRA_20090506.pdf
Crosslin JM , Bester G (2009) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ in Zebra Chip symptomatic potatoes from California. Plant Disease 93(5), p 551.
Crosslin JM, Hamm PB, Eggers JE, Rondon SI, Sengoda VG, Munyaneza JE (2012) First report of zebra chip disease and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on potatoes in Oregon and Washington state. Plant Disease 96(3), 452-453.
Crosslin JM, Olsen N, Nolte P (2012) First report of zebra chip disease and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on potatoes in Idaho. Plant Disease 96(3), p 453.
French-Monar, RD, Patton AF, Douglas JM, Abad JA, Schuster G, Wallace RW, Wheeler TA (2010) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on field tomatoes in the United States. Plant Disease 94(4), p 481.
Hansen AK, Trumble JT, Stouthamer R, Paine TD (2008) A new huanglongbing species, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous,’ found to infect tomato and potato, is vectored by the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74(18), 5862-5865.
Liefting LW, Sutherland PW, Ward IL, Paice KL, Weir BS, Clover GRG (2009) A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species associated with diseases of Solanaceous crops. Plant Disease 93(3), 208-214.
Liefting LW, Perez-Egusquiza, Clover GRG, Anderson JAD (2008) A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in Solanum tuberosum in New Zealand. Plant Disease 92(10), p 1474.
Liefting LW, Ward LI, Shiller JB, Clover GRG (2008) A new ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species in Solanum betaceum (tamarillo) and Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) in New Zealand. Plant Disease 92(11), p 1588.
McKenzie CL, Shatters Jr RG (2009) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ associated with psyllid yellows of tomato in Colorado. Plant Disease 93(10), p 1074.
Munyaneza JE, Fisher TW, Sengoda VG, Garczynski SF, Nissinen A, Lemmetty A (2010) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Europe. Plant Disease 94(5), p 639.
Munyaneza JE, Lemmetty A, Nissinen A, Sengoda VG, Fisher TW (2011) Molecular detection of Aster yellows phytoplasma and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in carrots affected by the psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Finland. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(3), 697-700.
Munyaneza JE, Sengoda VG, Crosslin JM, de la Rosa-Lozano G, Sanchez A (2009) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous’ in potato tubers with Zebra Chip disease in Mexico. Plant Disease 93(5), p 552.
Munyaneza JE, Sengoda VG, Crosslin JM, Garzón-Tiznado JA, Cardenas-Valenzuela OG (2009) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in pepper plants in Mexico. Plant Disease 93(10), p 1076.
Munyaneza JE, Sengoda VG, Stegmark R, Arvidsson AK, Anderbrant O, Yuvaraj JK, Rämert, Nissinen A (2012) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden. Plant Disease 96(3), p 453.
Munyaneza JE, Sengoda VG, Sundheim L, Meadow R (2012) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway. Plant Disease 96(3), p 454.
NPPO of Canada (2012-04).
NPPO of Spain (2011-10).
Rehman M, Melgar JC, Rivera JM, Idris AM, Brown JK (2010) First report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous or ‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum’ associated with severe foliar chlorosis, curling, and necrosis and tuber discoloration of potato plants in Honduras. Plant Disease 94(3), p 376.
Secor GA, Rivera VV, Lee IM, Clover GRG, Liefting LW, Li X, De Boer SH (2009) Association of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ with Zebra chip disease of potato established by graft and psyllid transmission, electron microscopy, and PCR. Plant Disease 93(6), 574-583.
EPPO RS 2009/089, 2010/082, 2010/083, 2012/100, 2012/115, 2012/116, 2012/117, 2012/118, 2012/119, 2012/120, 2012/121
|Panel review date 2013-03||
Entry date 2009-05