The loss of performance of a plant protection product because of the development of resistance in the target pest can be costly to the grower, the crop protection company and the environment. Registration authorities and crop protection companies recognize that the risk of resistance can be reduced by suitable management strategies, and that it is in their interests to protect the efficacy of products.
In Europe, according to EC Regulation 1107/2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market, the proper use of products depends on application of the principles of good plant protection practice and, whenever possible, integrated control. It thus includes all considerations concerning resistance risk assessment, resistance monitoring, resistance strategy and resistance management. Through the activities guided by the Working Party on Plant Protection Products, EPPO has many years of experience of developing international standards to support plant protection product registration (particularly efficacy evaluation standards). The EPPO Standard on Resistance Risk Analysis (PP 1/213), first approved in September 1999 and revised in 2002, describes how the risk of resistance to plant protection products can be assessed and, if appropriate, systems for risk management can be proposed, in the context of official registration of plant protection products. Minor amendments to reflect zonal assessment and updated references were integrated in 2011/2012 and will be followed by further indepth revision in 2013. The version approved by Council in September 2012 of EPPO Standard on Resistance Risk Analysis (PP 1/213) can be viewed here.
Two Workshops on the interpretation and use of the EPPO Resistance Standard have been organized, with many countries attending and great interest expressed. The first one took place in Poznan (PL) in June 2000 and the second was held in Bologna (IT) in October 2004.
After the Workshop in 2004, the Working Party on Plant Protection Products recognized a need for EPPO to develop and expand its activities on resistance. The ad hoc Panel on Resistance Risk Assessment was reconstituted and became a permanent Resistance Panel on Plant Protection Products with terms of reference and new tasks to accomplish. After its first meeting in York (GB) in November 2006, it was decided that among other things, EPPO should start organizing a series of small workshops targeting current specific resistance cases in the EPPO region. The aim of such workshops is to share knowledge; identify gaps in knowledge and research needs; avoid unnecessary duplication of work (e.g. resistance monitoring efforts); and to develop recommendations on resistance management for EPPO countries. The following EPPO Workshops have taken place:
The FAO has developed guidelines to address the problem of pesticide resistance in agriculture. The ultimate goal is to limit the development of resistance while continuing to protect crops from pests. FAO guidelines are addressed to scientific, technical, and policy experts who prepare or evaluate pesticide resistance management plans, and to pesticide regulators who assess the risk of resistance development during the registration or renewal of pesticides.