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Invasive Alien Plants

EPPO Lists of Invasive Alien Plants

 

EPPO, in the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), is developing a cooperative Europe-wide strategy to protect the EPPO region against invasive alien plants. In 2002 the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Species was created and was given the task to identify invasive alien plant species which may present a risk to the EPPO region, and to propose management options.

The number of plants that can be considered as potential pest species is very large and the Panel has elaborated a prioritization process for all known, or potential invasive alien plants in the EPPO region. During this process the Panel is documenting invasive alien plant species on data sheets and when necessary, conducting Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) following the EPPO Decision-support scheme, 'Pest Risk Analysis for quarantine pests'.

As a result of these studies, the following lists of invasive alien plants have been established (click on the links to view their status and contents):

 

Information about potentially invasive plants which were studied but not retained in the EPPO Lists can still be accessed:

Carpobrotus
Cortaderia selloana
Ludwigia
Pictures: Frank Billeton (FR)
and Sarah Brunel (EPPO) 
  


EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests

Invasive alien plants which have been added to the EPPO A1/A2 Lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests are listed in the table below. The purpose of the EPPO A1/A2 Lists is to recommend that organisms of serious phytosanitary concern should be regulated as quarantine pests by EPPO member countries (A1 pests are absent from the EPPO region and A2 pests are locally present in the EPPO region). The listing of pests is based on technical justifications (i.e. PRAs) and follows a meticulous approval procedure. Plant species, before being submitted to a PRA, have been identified as posing a risk by the EPPO prioritization process.

Invasive alien plants included in the EPPO A1/A2 Lists (for pests other than invasive alien plants view the full A1 and A2 Lists)

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database)
EPPO Lists
Data sheets
PRA documents
Alternanthera philoxeroides
A2 in 2015
Express PRA (15-20714)
Baccharis halimifolia
A2 in 2013
PRA (13-18359) - PRA rep (13-18698)
Crassula helmsii
A2 in 2006
PRA (06-12703) - PRA rep (06-12801)
Eichhornia crassipes
         [Workshop 2008]
A2 in 2008
PRA (08-14407) - PRA rep (08-14408)
Heracleum persicum
A2 in 2009
PRA (08-14472) - PRA rep (09-15076)
Heracleum sosnowskyi
A2 in 2009
PRA (08-14471) - PRA rep (09-15075)
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
A2 in 2005
PRA (09-15108) - PRA rep (09-15161)
A2 in 2011
PRA (11-16827 & 11-16828)
PRA rep (11-17142 & 11-17143)
Microstegium vimineum
A2 in 2015
PRA (15-21051) - PRA rep (15-20707)
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
A2 in 2015
Express PRA (15-20715)
Parthenium hysterophorus
A2 in 2014
PRA (14-19987) - PRA rep (14-19988)
Polygonum perfoliatum
A2 in 2008
PRA (07-13387) - PRA rep (07-13604)
Pueraria montana var. lobata
A2 in 2006
PRA (06-12701) - PRA rep (06-12802)
Solanum elaeagnifolium
         [Workshop 2006]
A2 in 2006
PRA (06-12702) - PRA rep (07-13607)

Aquatic plants

 

EPPO List of invasive alien plants

The plants listed below have been identified by the Panel as being absent or present in the EPPO region; as having a high potential for spread; as posing an important threat to plant health and/or the environment and biodiversity; and eventually as having other detrimental social impacts in the EPPO region. Because a large number of invasive alien plants are already present in the EPPO region, priorities were set in order to select those species considered to pose the greatest threat to species and ecosystems in the EPPO region. EPPO therefore strongly recommends countries endangered by these species to take measures to prevent their introduction and spread, or to manage unwanted populations (for example with publicity, restrictions on sale and planting, and control measures). This List is constantly being reviewed by the Panel (new species can be added and others removed). The list is not meant to be exhaustive but to focus on the main risks.

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database)
Added in
Data sheets
PRA and priorization documents
Acacia dealbata
2006
-
-
Acroptilon repens
2005
-
Ailanthus altissima
2004
-
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
2004
Ambrosia confertiflora
2014
Ambrosia trifida
2015
-
Amelanchier spicata
2004
-
-
Amorpha fruticosa
2006
-
-
Arctotheca calendula
2014
Buddleja davidii
2006
-
-
Cabomba caroliniana
2006
Cardiospermum grandiflorum
2013
Carpobrotus acinaciformis
2006
-
-
Carpobrotus edulis
2006
-
-
Cornus sericea
2012
-
Cortaderia selloana
2006
-
-
Cyperus esculentus
2004
-
Delairea odorata
2012
-
Egeria densa
2005
-
-
Elodea nuttallii
2004
-
-
Fallopia baldschuanica
2012
-
Fallopia japonica
2004
-
Fallopia sachalinensis
2004
-
-
Fallopia x bohemica
2004
-
-
Gunnera tinctoria
2014
Hakea sericea
2012
-
Helianthus tuberosus
2004
-
-
Heracleum mantegazzianum
2004
Humulus japonicus
2012
-
Hydrilla verticillata
2012
-
Hygrophila polysperma
2012
-
Impatiens glandulifera
2004
-
Lagarosiphon major
2004
-
Myriophyllum aquaticum
2004
-
Paspalum distichum
2006
-
-
Oxalis pes-caprae
2006
-
-
Pennisetum setaceum
2012
-
Pistia stratiotes
2012
-
Prunus serotina
2004
-
Senecio inaequidens
2004
Salvinia molesta
2012
-
Sicyos angulatus
2005
Solidago canadensis
2004
-
Solidago gigantea
2004
-

Aquatic plants


 

EPPO Observation List of invasive alien plants

The EPPO Observation List was created by the EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Plants in 2012. This list contains plant species (absent or present in the EPPO region) which present a medium risk or for which information currently available is not sufficient to make an accurate assessment. It is stressed that inclusion in the Observation List is not definitive, and changes can be made when additional information is recorded, particularly when information on invasiveness becomes available, or when a significant change in the invasive behaviour is observed.

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database)
Added in Data sheets PRA and priorization documents
Akebia quinata
2012
-
Andropogon virginicus
2014
Araujia sericifera
2012
-
Asparagus asparagoides
2013
Azolla filiculoides 
2012
-
-
Bidens frondosa
2012
-
-
Cenchrus incertus
2012
-
Eragrostis curvula
2012
Eriochloa villosa
2012
-
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides 
2012
-
Limnophila sessiliflora
2013
Lupinus polyphyllus
2012
-
-
Lysichiton americanus (A2 in 2005 - deleted in 2009)
2012
Nassella trichotoma, N. neesiana and N. tenuissima
2012
-
Rhododendron ponticum
2012
-
Sesbania punicea
2012
-
Solidago nemoralis
2012
-
Verbesina encelioides
2012
-

Aquatic plants

 

EPPO Alert List 

Species included in the Alert List have been selected by the EPPO Secretariat or proposed by EPPO member countries, because they may present a risk to the EPPO region. Most species are still of limited distribution, or absent from the EPPO region. Each addition to the EPPO Alert List is also marked by a short article in the EPPO Reporting Service. The objective of the EPPO Alert List is to provide early warning and eventually to propose candidates which may be subjected to a PRA. Species recorded in the Alert List are assessed through the EPPO Prioritization process to determine whether they should fall into the List of Invasive Alien Plants, the Observation List, or a PRA should be conducted.

Invasive alien plants included in the EPPO Alert List (for pests other than invasive alien plants view the full Alert List)

Plant name (link to EPPO Global Database)
Added in Mini data sheets PRA documents
Amaranthus palmeri
2014
-
Cenchrus longispinus
2015
-
Galenia pubescens
2015
-
Impatiens edgeworthii
2015
-
Miscanthus sinensis
2011
-

Aquatic plants

 

Other documented plant species  

During the prioritization process, potentially invasive plants were studied but not finally retained in the EPPO Lists for different reasons (e.g. already too widespread in the EPPO region, uncertain impacts). However, it was felt useful that the data collected by the Panel could be provided here. In addition, some species were documented by the EPPO Secretariat and datasheets or notes were prepared for the EPPO Reporting Service, these can also be retrieved below.

  

 

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